Good ol' Bootstrap. It was the face of the internet for quite some time. I'm not so sure it has as much of a place in the modern web anymore. If you're making anything complicated, you'd use something more modern such as Material UI with React. If you're making something simple, you can get away with using something like Squarespace or Webflow; however, Bootstrap's not gonna die for a loooong time.
To me the hype around Vue is completely overblown. It's just like React, except that it lacks the same community, a massive variety of libraries, and is not backed by a massive public company (Facebook). It's always seemed to me that people want to be trendy and use Vue because it was new and "cool" not because it was superior to React.
I never understood why Angular was so popular. Even Google realizes this, and with every single iteration of Angular they have almost completely re-written it...and still haven't gotten it right. I heard they recently got rid of it and moved to Dart. Smart move!
This is the most widely used front-end framework for a reason. It's been production tested by many of the largest corporations in existence. It's likely the most widely known front-end framework amongst developers. If you're doing a small side project, other frameworks are cool, but if you're doing anything mildly serious you should be doing it in React.
This is an excellent component library if you want to iterate quickly on a React web app you need to be using material UI. I found the documentation really easy to read, and the components were easily customizable.
Webpack does the job...just make sure you find a good example config online, oh yeah and also NEVER update, especially major versions. Other than that, it's great!