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cargo-binstall
cargo install cargo-binstall
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cargo-binstall

Binary installation for rust projects

by Ryan

0.9.1 (see all)License:GPL-3.0
cargo install cargo-binstall
Readme

Cargo B(inary)Install

cargo binstall provides a low-complexity mechanism for installing rust binaries as an alternative to building from source (via cargo install) or manually downloading packages. This is intended to work with existing CI artifacts and infrastructure, and with minimal overhead for package maintainers. To support binstall maintainers must add configuration values to Cargo.toml to allow the tool to locate the appropriate binary package for a given version and target. See Supporting Binary Installation for instructions on how to support binstall in your projects.

Installing

To get started using cargo-binstall, first install the binary (either via cargo install cargo-binstall or by downloading a pre-compiled release.

linux x86_64:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-x86_64-unknown-linux-musl.tgz

linux armv7:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-armv7-unknown-linux-musleabihf.tgz

linux arm64:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-aarch64-unknown-linux-musl.tgz

macos x86_64:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-x86_64-apple-darwin.zip

macos M1:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-aarch64-apple-darwin.zip

windows x86_64:

wget https://github.com/ryankurte/cargo-binstall/releases/latest/download/cargo-binstall-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.zip

Usage

Supported packages can be installed using cargo binstall NAME where NAME is the crate.io package name.

Package versions and targets may be specified using the --version and --target arguments respectively, and install directory with --install-dir (this defaults to $HOME/.cargo/bin, with fall-backs to $HOME/.bin if unavailable). For additional options please see cargo binstall --help.

[garry] ➜  ~ cargo binstall radio-sx128x --version 0.14.1-alpha.5
21:14:09 [INFO] Installing package: 'radio-sx128x'
21:14:13 [INFO] Downloading package from: 'https://github.com/rust-iot/rust-radio-sx128x/releases/download/v0.14.1-alpha.5/sx128x-util-x86_64-apple-darwin.tgz'
21:14:18 [INFO] This will install the following binaries:
21:14:18 [INFO]   - sx128x-util (sx128x-util-x86_64-apple-darwin -> /Users/ryankurte/.cargo/bin/sx128x-util-v0.14.1-alpha.5)
21:14:18 [INFO] And create (or update) the following symlinks:
21:14:18 [INFO]   - sx128x-util (/Users/ryankurte/.cargo/bin/sx128x-util-v0.14.1-alpha.5 -> /Users/ryankurte/.cargo/bin/sx128x-util)
21:14:18 [INFO] Do you wish to continue? yes/no
yes
21:15:30 [INFO] Installing binaries...
21:15:30 [INFO] Installation complete!

Unsupported crates

To install an unsupported crate, you may specify the Cargo.toml metadata entries for pkg-url, bin-dir, and pkg-fmt at the command line, with values as documented below.

For example:

$ binstall \
  --pkg-url="{ repo }/releases/download/{ version }/{ name }-{ version }-{ target }.{ archive-format }" \
  --pkg-fmt="txz" crate_name

Status

Build GitHub tag Crates.io Docs.rs

Features

  • Manifest discovery
    • Fetch crate / manifest via crates.io
    • Fetch crate / manifest via git (/ github / gitlab)
    • Use local crate / manifest (--manifest-path)
    • Fetch build from the quickinstall repository
  • Package formats
    • Tgz
    • Txz
    • Tar.zst
    • Tar
    • Zip
    • Bin
  • Extraction / Transformation
    • Extract from subdirectory in archive (ie. support archives with platform or target subdirectories)
    • Extract specific files from archive (ie. support single archive with multiple platform binaries)
  • Security
    • Package signing
    • Package verification
  • Fallback to installing from source

Supporting Binary Installation

binstall works with existing CI-built binary outputs, with configuration via [package.metadata.binstall] keys in the relevant crate manifest. When configuring binstall you can test against a local manifest with --manifest-path=PATH argument to use the crate and manifest at the provided PATH, skipping crate discovery and download.

To get started, add a [package.metadata.binstall] section to your Cargo.toml. As an example, the default configuration would be:

[package.metadata.binstall]
pkg-url = "{ repo }/releases/download/v{ version }/{ name }-{ target }-v{ version }.{ archive-format }"
bin-dir = "{ name }-{ target }-v{ version }/{ bin }{ binary-ext }"
pkg-fmt = "tgz"

With the following configuration keys:

  • pkg-url specifies the package download URL for a given target/version, templated
  • bin-dir specifies the binary path within the package, templated (with an .exe suffix on windows)
  • pkg-fmt overrides the package format for download/extraction (defaults to: tgz)

pkg-url and bin-dir are templated to support different names for different versions / architectures / etc. Template variables use the format { VAR } where VAR is the name of the variable, with the following variables available:

  • name is the name of the crate / package
  • version is the crate version (per --version and the crate manifest)
  • repo is the repository linked in Cargo.toml
  • bin is the name of a specific binary, inferred from the crate configuration
  • target is the rust target name (defaults to your architecture, but can be overridden using the --target command line option if required()
  • archive-format is the filename extension of the package archive format
  • binary-ext is the string .exe if the target is for Windows, or the empty string otherwise
  • format is a soft-deprecated alias for archive-format in pkg-url, and for binary-ext in bin-dir; in the future this may warn at install time.

pkg-url, pkg-fmt and bin-dir can be overridden on a per-target basis if required, for example, if your x86_64-pc-windows-msvc builds use zip archives this could be set via:

[package.metadata.binstall.overrides.x86_64-pc-windows-msvc]
pkg-fmt = "zip"

Defaults

By default binstall is setup to work with github releases, and expects to find:

  • an archive named { name }-{ target }-v{ version }.{ archive-format }
    • so that this does not overwrite different targets or versions when manually downloaded
  • located at { repo }/releases/download/v{ version }/
    • compatible with github tags / releases
  • containing a folder named { name }-{ target }-v{ version }
    • so that prior binary files are not overwritten when manually executing tar -xvf ...
  • containing binary files in the form { bin }{ binary-ext } (where bin is the cargo binary name and binary-ext is .exe on windows and empty on other platforms)

If your package already uses this approach, you shouldn't need to set anything.

QuickInstall

QuickInstall is an unofficial repository of prebuilt binaries for Crates, and binstall has built-in support for it! If your crate is built by QuickInstall, it will already work with binstall. However, binaries as configured above take precedence when they exist.

Examples

For example, the default configuration (as shown above) for a crate called radio-sx128x (version: v0.14.1-alpha.5 on x86_64 linux) would be interpolated to:

  • A download URL of https://github.com/rust-iot/rust-radio-sx128x/releases/download/v0.14.1-alpha.5/rust-radio-sx128x-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu-v0.14.1-alpha.5.tgz
  • Containing a single binary file rust-radio-sx128x-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu-v0.14.1-alpha.5/rust-radio-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
  • Installed to$HOME/.cargo/bin/rust-radio-sx128x-v0.14.1-alpha.5
  • With a symlink from $HOME/.cargo/bin/rust-radio-sx128x

If the package name does not match the crate name

As is common with libraries / utilities (and the radio-sx128x example), this can be overridden by specifying the pkg-url:

[package.metadata.binstall]
pkg-url = "{ repo }/releases/download/v{ version }/sx128x-util-{ target }-v{ version }.{ archive-format }"

Which provides a download URL of: https://github.com/rust-iot/rust-radio-sx128x/releases/download/v0.14.1-alpha.5/sx128x-util-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu-v0.14.1-alpha.5.tgz

If the package structure differs from the default

Were the package to contain binaries in the form name-target[.exe], this could be overridden using the bin-dir key:

[package.metadata.binstall]
bin-dir = "{ bin }-{ target }{ binary-ext }"

Which provides a binary path of: sx128x-util-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu[.exe]. It is worth noting that binary names are inferred from the crate, so long as cargo builds them this should just work.

FAQ

  • Why use this?
    • Because wget-ing releases is frustrating, cargo install takes a not inconsequential portion of forever on constrained devices, and often putting together actual packages is overkill.
  • Why use the cargo manifest?
    • Crates already have these, and they already contain a significant portion of the required information. Also there's this great and woefully underused (imo) [package.metadata] field.
  • Is this secure?
    • Yes and also no? We're not (yet? #1) doing anything to verify the CI binaries are produced by the right person / organisation. However, we're pulling data from crates.io and the cargo manifest, both of which are already trusted entities, and this is functionally a replacement for curl ... | bash or wget-ing the same files, so, things can be improved but it's also sorta moot
  • What do the error codes mean?

If you have ideas / contributions or anything is not working the way you expect (in which case, please include an output with --log-level debug) and feel free to open an issue or PR.

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