pypi i tqdm


A Fast, Extensible Progress Bar for Python and CLI

by tqdm

4.64.1 (see all)License:MPLv2.0, MIT Licences
pypi i tqdm



|Py-Versions| |Versions| |Conda-Forge-Status| |Docker| |Snapcraft|

|Build-Status| |Coverage-Status| |Branch-Coverage-Status| |Codacy-Grade| |Libraries-Rank| |PyPI-Downloads|

|LICENCE| |OpenHub-Status| |binder-demo| |awesome-python|

tqdm derives from the Arabic word taqaddum (تقدّم) which can mean "progress," and is an abbreviation for "I love you so much" in Spanish (te quiero demasiado).

Instantly make your loops show a smart progress meter - just wrap any iterable with tqdm(iterable), and you're done!

.. code:: python

from tqdm import tqdm
for i in tqdm(range(10000)):

76%|████████████████████████ | 7568/10000 [00:33<00:10, 229.00it/s]

trange(N) can be also used as a convenient shortcut for tqdm(range(N)).

|Screenshot| |Video| |Slides| |Merch|

It can also be executed as a module with pipes:

.. code:: sh

$ seq 9999999 | tqdm --bytes | wc -l
75.2MB [00:00, 217MB/s]

$ tar -zcf - docs/ | tqdm --bytes --total `du -sb docs/ | cut -f1` \
    > backup.tgz
 32%|██████████▍                      | 8.89G/27.9G [00:42<01:31, 223MB/s]

Overhead is low -- about 60ns per iteration (80ns with tqdm.gui), and is unit tested against performance regression. By comparison, the well-established ProgressBar <https://github.com/niltonvolpato/python-progressbar>__ has an 800ns/iter overhead.

In addition to its low overhead, tqdm uses smart algorithms to predict the remaining time and to skip unnecessary iteration displays, which allows for a negligible overhead in most cases.

tqdm works on any platform (Linux, Windows, Mac, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Solaris/SunOS), in any console or in a GUI, and is also friendly with IPython/Jupyter notebooks.

tqdm does not require any dependencies (not even curses!), just Python and an environment supporting carriage return \r and line feed \n control characters.

.. contents:: Table of contents :backlinks: top :local:


Latest PyPI stable release

|Versions| |PyPI-Downloads| |Libraries-Dependents|

.. code:: sh

    pip install tqdm

Latest development release on GitHub

|GitHub-Status| |GitHub-Stars| |GitHub-Commits| |GitHub-Forks| |GitHub-Updated|

Pull and install pre-release devel branch:

.. code:: sh

pip install "git+https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm.git@devel#egg=tqdm"

Latest Conda release


.. code:: sh

    conda install -c conda-forge tqdm

Latest Snapcraft release


There are 3 channels to choose from:

.. code:: sh

snap install tqdm  # implies --stable, i.e. latest tagged release
snap install tqdm  --candidate  # master branch
snap install tqdm  --edge  # devel branch

Note that snap binaries are purely for CLI use (not import-able), and automatically set up bash tab-completion.

Latest Docker release


.. code:: sh

    docker pull tqdm/tqdm
    docker run -i --rm tqdm/tqdm --help


There are other (unofficial) places where ``tqdm`` may be downloaded, particularly for CLI use:


.. |Repology| image:: https://repology.org/badge/tiny-repos/python:tqdm.svg
   :target: https://repology.org/project/python:tqdm/versions


The list of all changes is available either on GitHub's Releases:
|GitHub-Status|, on the
`wiki <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/wiki/Releases>`__, or on the
`website <https://tqdm.github.io/releases>`__.


``tqdm`` is very versatile and can be used in a number of ways.
The three main ones are given below.


Wrap ``tqdm()`` around any iterable:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm import tqdm
    from time import sleep

    text = ""
    for char in tqdm(["a", "b", "c", "d"]):
        text = text + char

``trange(i)`` is a special optimised instance of ``tqdm(range(i))``:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm import trange

    for i in trange(100):

Instantiation outside of the loop allows for manual control over ``tqdm()``:

.. code:: python

    pbar = tqdm(["a", "b", "c", "d"])
    for char in pbar:
        pbar.set_description("Processing %s" % char)


Manual control of ``tqdm()`` updates using a ``with`` statement:

.. code:: python

    with tqdm(total=100) as pbar:
        for i in range(10):

If the optional variable ``total`` (or an iterable with ``len()``) is
provided, predictive stats are displayed.

``with`` is also optional (you can just assign ``tqdm()`` to a variable,
but in this case don't forget to ``del`` or ``close()`` at the end:

.. code:: python

    pbar = tqdm(total=100)
    for i in range(10):


Perhaps the most wonderful use of ``tqdm`` is in a script or on the command
line. Simply inserting ``tqdm`` (or ``python -m tqdm``) between pipes will pass
through all ``stdin`` to ``stdout`` while printing progress to ``stderr``.

The example below demonstrate counting the number of lines in all Python files
in the current directory, with timing information included.

.. code:: sh

    $ time find . -name '*.py' -type f -exec cat \{} \; | wc -l

    real    0m3.458s
    user    0m0.274s
    sys     0m3.325s

    $ time find . -name '*.py' -type f -exec cat \{} \; | tqdm | wc -l
    857366it [00:03, 246471.31it/s]

    real    0m3.585s
    user    0m0.862s
    sys     0m3.358s

Note that the usual arguments for ``tqdm`` can also be specified.

.. code:: sh

    $ find . -name '*.py' -type f -exec cat \{} \; |
        tqdm --unit loc --unit_scale --total 857366 >> /dev/null
    100%|█████████████████████████████████| 857K/857K [00:04<00:00, 246Kloc/s]

Backing up a large directory?

.. code:: sh

    $ tar -zcf - docs/ | tqdm --bytes --total `du -sb docs/ | cut -f1` \
      > backup.tgz
     44%|██████████████▊                   | 153M/352M [00:14<00:18, 11.0MB/s]

This can be beautified further:

.. code:: sh

    $ BYTES="$(du -sb docs/ | cut -f1)"
    $ tar -cf - docs/ \
      | tqdm --bytes --total "$BYTES" --desc Processing | gzip \
      | tqdm --bytes --total "$BYTES" --desc Compressed --position 1 \
      > ~/backup.tgz
    Processing: 100%|██████████████████████| 352M/352M [00:14<00:00, 30.2MB/s]
    Compressed:  42%|█████████▎            | 148M/352M [00:14<00:19, 10.9MB/s]

Or done on a file level using 7-zip:

.. code:: sh

    $ 7z a -bd -r backup.7z docs/ | grep Compressing \
      | tqdm --total $(find docs/ -type f | wc -l) --unit files \
      | grep -v Compressing
    100%|██████████████████████████▉| 15327/15327 [01:00<00:00, 712.96files/s]

Pre-existing CLI programs already outputting basic progress information will
benefit from ``tqdm``'s ``--update`` and ``--update_to`` flags:

.. code:: sh

    $ seq 3 0.1 5 | tqdm --total 5 --update_to --null
    100%|████████████████████████████████████| 5.0/5 [00:00<00:00, 9673.21it/s]
    $ seq 10 | tqdm --update --null  # 1 + 2 + ... + 10 = 55 iterations
    55it [00:00, 90006.52it/s]

FAQ and Known Issues


The most common issues relate to excessive output on multiple lines, instead
of a neat one-line progress bar.

- Consoles in general: require support for carriage return (``CR``, ``\r``).
- Nested progress bars:

  * Consoles in general: require support for moving cursors up to the
    previous line. For example,
    `IDLE <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/191#issuecomment-230168030>`__,
    `ConEmu <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/254>`__ and
    `PyCharm <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/203>`__ (also
    `here <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/208>`__,
    `here <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/307>`__, and
    `here <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/454#issuecomment-335416815>`__)
    lack full support.
  * Windows: additionally may require the Python module ``colorama``
    to ensure nested bars stay within their respective lines.

- Unicode:

  * Environments which report that they support unicode will have solid smooth
    progressbars. The fallback is an ``ascii``-only bar.
  * Windows consoles often only partially support unicode and thus
    `often require explicit ascii=True <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/454#issuecomment-335416815>`__
    (also `here <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/499>`__). This is due to
    either normal-width unicode characters being incorrectly displayed as
    "wide", or some unicode characters not rendering.

- Wrapping generators:

  * Generator wrapper functions tend to hide the length of iterables.
    ``tqdm`` does not.
  * Replace ``tqdm(enumerate(...))`` with ``enumerate(tqdm(...))`` or
    ``tqdm(enumerate(x), total=len(x), ...)``.
    The same applies to ``numpy.ndenumerate``.
  * Replace ``tqdm(zip(a, b))`` with ``zip(tqdm(a), b)`` or even
    ``zip(tqdm(a), tqdm(b))``.
  * The same applies to ``itertools``.
  * Some useful convenience functions can be found under ``tqdm.contrib``.

- `Hanging pipes in python2 <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/359>`__:
  when using ``tqdm`` on the CLI, you may need to use Python 3.5+ for correct
- `No intermediate output in docker-compose <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/771>`__:
  use ``docker-compose run`` instead of ``docker-compose up`` and ``tty: true``.

If you come across any other difficulties, browse and file |GitHub-Issues|.


|Py-Versions| |README-Hits| (Since 19 May 2016)

.. code:: python

    class tqdm():
      Decorate an iterable object, returning an iterator which acts exactly
      like the original iterable, but prints a dynamically updating
      progressbar every time a value is requested.

      def __init__(self, iterable=None, desc=None, total=None, leave=True,
                   file=None, ncols=None, mininterval=0.1,
                   maxinterval=10.0, miniters=None, ascii=None, disable=False,
                   unit='it', unit_scale=False, dynamic_ncols=False,
                   smoothing=0.3, bar_format=None, initial=0, position=None,
                   postfix=None, unit_divisor=1000):


* iterable  : iterable, optional  
    Iterable to decorate with a progressbar.
    Leave blank to manually manage the updates.
* desc  : str, optional  
    Prefix for the progressbar.
* total  : int or float, optional  
    The number of expected iterations. If unspecified,
    len(iterable) is used if possible. If float("inf") or as a last
    resort, only basic progress statistics are displayed
    (no ETA, no progressbar).
    If ``gui`` is True and this parameter needs subsequent updating,
    specify an initial arbitrary large positive number,
    e.g. 9e9.
* leave  : bool, optional  
    If [default: True], keeps all traces of the progressbar
    upon termination of iteration.
    If ``None``, will leave only if ``position`` is ``0``.
* file  : ``io.TextIOWrapper`` or ``io.StringIO``, optional  
    Specifies where to output the progress messages
    (default: sys.stderr). Uses ``file.write(str)`` and ``file.flush()``
    methods.  For encoding, see ``write_bytes``.
* ncols  : int, optional  
    The width of the entire output message. If specified,
    dynamically resizes the progressbar to stay within this bound.
    If unspecified, attempts to use environment width. The
    fallback is a meter width of 10 and no limit for the counter and
    statistics. If 0, will not print any meter (only stats).
* mininterval  : float, optional  
    Minimum progress display update interval [default: 0.1] seconds.
* maxinterval  : float, optional  
    Maximum progress display update interval [default: 10] seconds.
    Automatically adjusts ``miniters`` to correspond to ``mininterval``
    after long display update lag. Only works if ``dynamic_miniters``
    or monitor thread is enabled.
* miniters  : int or float, optional  
    Minimum progress display update interval, in iterations.
    If 0 and ``dynamic_miniters``, will automatically adjust to equal
    ``mininterval`` (more CPU efficient, good for tight loops).
    If > 0, will skip display of specified number of iterations.
    Tweak this and ``mininterval`` to get very efficient loops.
    If your progress is erratic with both fast and slow iterations
    (network, skipping items, etc) you should set miniters=1.
* ascii  : bool or str, optional  
    If unspecified or False, use unicode (smooth blocks) to fill
    the meter. The fallback is to use ASCII characters " 123456789#".
* disable  : bool, optional  
    Whether to disable the entire progressbar wrapper
    [default: False]. If set to None, disable on non-TTY.
* unit  : str, optional  
    String that will be used to define the unit of each iteration
    [default: it].
* unit_scale  : bool or int or float, optional  
    If 1 or True, the number of iterations will be reduced/scaled
    automatically and a metric prefix following the
    International System of Units standard will be added
    (kilo, mega, etc.) [default: False]. If any other non-zero
    number, will scale ``total`` and ``n``.
* dynamic_ncols  : bool, optional  
    If set, constantly alters ``ncols`` and ``nrows`` to the
    environment (allowing for window resizes) [default: False].
* smoothing  : float, optional  
    Exponential moving average smoothing factor for speed estimates
    (ignored in GUI mode). Ranges from 0 (average speed) to 1
    (current/instantaneous speed) [default: 0.3].
* bar_format  : str, optional  
    Specify a custom bar string formatting. May impact performance.
    [default: '{l_bar}{bar}{r_bar}'], where
    l_bar='{desc}: {percentage:3.0f}%|' and
    r_bar='| {n_fmt}/{total_fmt} [{elapsed}<{remaining}, '
    Possible vars: l_bar, bar, r_bar, n, n_fmt, total, total_fmt,
    percentage, elapsed, elapsed_s, ncols, nrows, desc, unit,
    rate, rate_fmt, rate_noinv, rate_noinv_fmt,
    rate_inv, rate_inv_fmt, postfix, unit_divisor,
    remaining, remaining_s, eta.
    Note that a trailing ": " is automatically removed after {desc}
    if the latter is empty.
* initial  : int or float, optional  
    The initial counter value. Useful when restarting a progress
    bar [default: 0]. If using float, consider specifying ``{n:.3f}``
    or similar in ``bar_format``, or specifying ``unit_scale``.
* position  : int, optional  
    Specify the line offset to print this bar (starting from 0)
    Automatic if unspecified.
    Useful to manage multiple bars at once (eg, from threads).
* postfix  : dict or ``*``, optional  
    Specify additional stats to display at the end of the bar.
    Calls ``set_postfix(**postfix)`` if possible (dict).
* unit_divisor  : float, optional  
    [default: 1000], ignored unless ``unit_scale`` is True.
* write_bytes  : bool, optional  
    If (default: None) and ``file`` is unspecified,
    bytes will be written in Python 2. If ``True`` will also write
    bytes. In all other cases will default to unicode.
* lock_args  : tuple, optional  
    Passed to ``refresh`` for intermediate output
    (initialisation, iterating, and updating).
* nrows  : int, optional  
    The screen height. If specified, hides nested bars outside this
    bound. If unspecified, attempts to use environment height.
    The fallback is 20.
* colour  : str, optional  
    Bar colour (e.g. 'green', '#00ff00').
* delay  : float, optional  
    Don't display until [default: 0] seconds have elapsed.

Extra CLI Options

* delim  : chr, optional  
    Delimiting character [default: '\n']. Use '\0' for null.
    N.B.: on Windows systems, Python converts '\n' to '\r\n'.
* buf_size  : int, optional  
    String buffer size in bytes [default: 256]
    used when ``delim`` is specified.
* bytes  : bool, optional  
    If true, will count bytes, ignore ``delim``, and default
    ``unit_scale`` to True, ``unit_divisor`` to 1024, and ``unit`` to 'B'.
* tee  : bool, optional  
    If true, passes ``stdin`` to both ``stderr`` and ``stdout``.
* update  : bool, optional  
    If true, will treat input as newly elapsed iterations,
    i.e. numbers to pass to ``update()``. Note that this is slow
    (~2e5 it/s) since every input must be decoded as a number.
* update_to  : bool, optional  
    If true, will treat input as total elapsed iterations,
    i.e. numbers to assign to ``self.n``. Note that this is slow
    (~2e5 it/s) since every input must be decoded as a number.
* null  : bool, optional  
    If true, will discard input (no stdout).
* manpath  : str, optional  
    Directory in which to install tqdm man pages.
* comppath  : str, optional  
    Directory in which to place tqdm completion.
* log  : str, optional  


* out  : decorated iterator.  

.. code:: python

    class tqdm():
      def update(self, n=1):
          Manually update the progress bar, useful for streams
          such as reading files.
          >>> t = tqdm(total=filesize) # Initialise
          >>> for current_buffer in stream:
          ...    ...
          ...    t.update(len(current_buffer))
          >>> t.close()
          The last line is highly recommended, but possibly not necessary if
          ``t.update()`` will be called in such a way that ``filesize`` will be
          exactly reached and printed.

          n  : int or float, optional
              Increment to add to the internal counter of iterations
              [default: 1]. If using float, consider specifying ``{n:.3f}``
              or similar in ``bar_format``, or specifying ``unit_scale``.

          out  : bool or None
              True if a ``display()`` was triggered.

      def close(self):
          """Cleanup and (if leave=False) close the progressbar."""

      def clear(self, nomove=False):
          """Clear current bar display."""

      def refresh(self):
          Force refresh the display of this bar.

          nolock  : bool, optional
              If ``True``, does not lock.
              If [default: ``False``]: calls ``acquire()`` on internal lock.
          lock_args  : tuple, optional
              Passed to internal lock's ``acquire()``.
              If specified, will only ``display()`` if ``acquire()`` returns ``True``.

      def unpause(self):
          """Restart tqdm timer from last print time."""

      def reset(self, total=None):
          Resets to 0 iterations for repeated use.

          Consider combining with ``leave=True``.

          total  : int or float, optional. Total to use for the new bar.

      def set_description(self, desc=None, refresh=True):
          Set/modify description of the progress bar.

          desc  : str, optional
          refresh  : bool, optional
              Forces refresh [default: True].

      def set_postfix(self, ordered_dict=None, refresh=True, **tqdm_kwargs):
          Set/modify postfix (additional stats)
          with automatic formatting based on datatype.

          ordered_dict  : dict or OrderedDict, optional
          refresh  : bool, optional
              Forces refresh [default: True].
          kwargs  : dict, optional

      def write(cls, s, file=sys.stdout, end="\n"):
          """Print a message via tqdm (without overlap with bars)."""

      def format_dict(self):
          """Public API for read-only member access."""

      def display(self, msg=None, pos=None):
          Use ``self.sp`` to display ``msg`` in the specified ``pos``.

          Consider overloading this function when inheriting to use e.g.:
          ``self.some_frontend(**self.format_dict)`` instead of ``self.sp``.

          msg  : str, optional. What to display (default: ``repr(self)``).
          pos  : int, optional. Position to ``moveto``
            (default: ``abs(self.pos)``).

      def wrapattr(cls, stream, method, total=None, bytes=True, **tqdm_kwargs):
          stream  : file-like object.
          method  : str, "read" or "write". The result of ``read()`` and
              the first argument of ``write()`` should have a ``len()``.

          >>> with tqdm.wrapattr(file_obj, "read", total=file_obj.size) as fobj:
          ...     while True:
          ...         chunk = fobj.read(chunk_size)
          ...         if not chunk:
          ...             break

      def pandas(cls, *targs, **tqdm_kwargs):
          """Registers the current `tqdm` class with `pandas`."""

    def trange(*args, **tqdm_kwargs):
        A shortcut for `tqdm(xrange(*args), **tqdm_kwargs)`.
        On Python3+, `range` is used instead of `xrange`.

Convenience Functions

.. code:: python

def tqdm.contrib.tenumerate(iterable, start=0, total=None,
                            tqdm_class=tqdm.auto.tqdm, **tqdm_kwargs):
    """Equivalent of `numpy.ndenumerate` or builtin `enumerate`."""

def tqdm.contrib.tzip(iter1, *iter2plus, **tqdm_kwargs):
    """Equivalent of builtin `zip`."""

def tqdm.contrib.tmap(function, *sequences, **tqdm_kwargs):
    """Equivalent of builtin `map`."""


.. code:: python

    class tqdm.notebook.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
        """IPython/Jupyter Notebook widget."""

    class tqdm.auto.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
        """Automatically chooses beween `tqdm.notebook` and `tqdm.tqdm`."""

    class tqdm.asyncio.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
      """Asynchronous version."""
      def as_completed(cls, fs, *, loop=None, timeout=None, total=None,
          """Wrapper for `asyncio.as_completed`."""

    class tqdm.gui.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
        """Matplotlib GUI version."""

    class tqdm.tk.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
        """Tkinter GUI version."""

    class tqdm.rich.tqdm(tqdm.tqdm):
        """`rich.progress` version."""

    class tqdm.keras.TqdmCallback(keras.callbacks.Callback):
        """Keras callback for epoch and batch progress."""

    class tqdm.dask.TqdmCallback(dask.callbacks.Callback):
        """Dask callback for task progress."""


The ``tqdm.contrib`` package also contains experimental modules:

- ``tqdm.contrib.itertools``: Thin wrappers around ``itertools``
- ``tqdm.contrib.concurrent``: Thin wrappers around ``concurrent.futures``
- ``tqdm.contrib.slack``: Posts to `Slack <https://slack.com>`__ bots
- ``tqdm.contrib.discord``: Posts to `Discord <https://discord.com>`__ bots
- ``tqdm.contrib.telegram``: Posts to `Telegram <https://telegram.org>`__ bots
- ``tqdm.contrib.bells``: Automagically enables all optional features

  * ``auto``, ``pandas``, ``slack``, ``discord``, ``telegram``

Examples and Advanced Usage

- See the `examples <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/tree/master/examples>`__
- import the module and run ``help()``;
- consult the `wiki <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/wiki>`__;

  * this has an
    `excellent article <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/wiki/How-to-make-a-great-Progress-Bar>`__
    on how to make a **great** progressbar;

- check out the `slides from PyData London <https://tqdm.github.io/PyData2019/slides.html>`__, or
- run the |binder-demo|.

Description and additional stats

Custom information can be displayed and updated dynamically on tqdm bars with the desc and postfix arguments:

.. code:: python

from tqdm import tqdm, trange
from random import random, randint
from time import sleep

with trange(10) as t:
    for i in t:
        # Description will be displayed on the left
        t.set_description('GEN %i' % i)
        # Postfix will be displayed on the right,
        # formatted automatically based on argument's datatype
        t.set_postfix(loss=random(), gen=randint(1,999), str='h',
                      lst=[1, 2])

with tqdm(total=10, bar_format="{postfix[0]} {postfix[1][value]:>8.2g}",
          postfix=["Batch", dict(value=0)]) as t:
    for i in range(10):
        t.postfix[1]["value"] = i / 2

Points to remember when using {postfix[...]} in the bar_format string:

  • postfix also needs to be passed as an initial argument in a compatible format, and
  • postfix will be auto-converted to a string if it is a dict-like object. To prevent this behaviour, insert an extra item into the dictionary where the key is not a string.

Additional bar_format parameters may also be defined by overriding format_dict, and the bar itself may be modified using ascii:

.. code:: python

from tqdm import tqdm
class TqdmExtraFormat(tqdm):
    """Provides a `total_time` format parameter"""
    def format_dict(self):
        d = super(TqdmExtraFormat, self).format_dict
        total_time = d["elapsed"] * (d["total"] or 0) / max(d["n"], 1)
        d.update(total_time=self.format_interval(total_time) + " in total")
        return d

for i in TqdmExtraFormat(
      range(9), ascii=" .oO0",
      bar_format="{total_time}: {percentage:.0f}%|{bar}{r_bar}"):
    if i == 4:

.. code::

00:00 in total: 44%|0000.     | 4/9 [00:00<00:00, 962.93it/s]

Note that {bar} also supports a format specifier [width][type].

  • width

    • unspecified (default): automatic to fill ncols
    • int >= 0: fixed width overriding ncols logic
    • int < 0: subtract from the automatic default
  • type

    • a: ascii (ascii=True override)
    • u: unicode (ascii=False override)
    • b: blank (ascii=" " override)

This means a fixed bar with right-justified text may be created by using: bar_format="{l_bar}{bar:10}|{bar:-10b}right-justified"

Nested progress bars

``tqdm`` supports nested progress bars. Here's an example:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.auto import trange
    from time import sleep

    for i in trange(4, desc='1st loop'):
        for j in trange(5, desc='2nd loop'):
            for k in trange(50, desc='3rd loop', leave=False):

For manual control over positioning (e.g. for multi-processing use),
you may specify ``position=n`` where ``n=0`` for the outermost bar,
``n=1`` for the next, and so on.
However, it's best to check if ``tqdm`` can work without manual ``position``

.. code:: python

    from time import sleep
    from tqdm import trange, tqdm
    from multiprocessing import Pool, RLock, freeze_support

    L = list(range(9))

    def progresser(n):
        interval = 0.001 / (n + 2)
        total = 5000
        text = "#{}, est. {:<04.2}s".format(n, interval * total)
        for _ in trange(total, desc=text, position=n):

    if __name__ == '__main__':
        freeze_support()  # for Windows support
        tqdm.set_lock(RLock())  # for managing output contention
        p = Pool(initializer=tqdm.set_lock, initargs=(tqdm.get_lock(),))
        p.map(progresser, L)

Note that in Python 3, ``tqdm.write`` is thread-safe:

.. code:: python

    from time import sleep
    from tqdm import tqdm, trange
    from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor

    L = list(range(9))

    def progresser(n):
        interval = 0.001 / (n + 2)
        total = 5000
        text = "#{}, est. {:<04.2}s".format(n, interval * total)
        for _ in trange(total, desc=text):
        if n == 6:
            tqdm.write("n == 6 completed.")
            tqdm.write("`tqdm.write()` is thread-safe in py3!")

    if __name__ == '__main__':
        with ThreadPoolExecutor() as p:
            p.map(progresser, L)

Hooks and callbacks

``tqdm`` can easily support callbacks/hooks and manual updates.
Here's an example with ``urllib``:

**``urllib.urlretrieve`` documentation**

    | [...]
    | If present, the hook function will be called once
    | on establishment of the network connection and once after each block read
    | thereafter. The hook will be passed three arguments; a count of blocks
    | transferred so far, a block size in bytes, and the total size of the file.
    | [...]

.. code:: python

    import urllib, os
    from tqdm import tqdm
    urllib = getattr(urllib, 'request', urllib)

    class TqdmUpTo(tqdm):
        """Provides `update_to(n)` which uses `tqdm.update(delta_n)`."""
        def update_to(self, b=1, bsize=1, tsize=None):
            b  : int, optional
                Number of blocks transferred so far [default: 1].
            bsize  : int, optional
                Size of each block (in tqdm units) [default: 1].
            tsize  : int, optional
                Total size (in tqdm units). If [default: None] remains unchanged.
            if tsize is not None:
                self.total = tsize
            return self.update(b * bsize - self.n)  # also sets self.n = b * bsize

    eg_link = "https://caspersci.uk.to/matryoshka.zip"
    with TqdmUpTo(unit='B', unit_scale=True, unit_divisor=1024, miniters=1,
                  desc=eg_link.split('/')[-1]) as t:  # all optional kwargs
        urllib.urlretrieve(eg_link, filename=os.devnull,
                           reporthook=t.update_to, data=None)
        t.total = t.n

Inspired by `twine#242 <https://github.com/pypa/twine/pull/242>`__.
Functional alternative in
`examples/tqdm_wget.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/examples/tqdm_wget.py>`__.

It is recommend to use ``miniters=1`` whenever there is potentially
large differences in iteration speed (e.g. downloading a file over
a patchy connection).

**Wrapping read/write methods**

To measure throughput through a file-like object's ``read`` or ``write``
methods, use ``CallbackIOWrapper``:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.auto import tqdm
    from tqdm.utils import CallbackIOWrapper

    with tqdm(total=file_obj.size,
              unit='B', unit_scale=True, unit_divisor=1024) as t:
        fobj = CallbackIOWrapper(t.update, file_obj, "read")
        while True:
            chunk = fobj.read(chunk_size)
            if not chunk:
        # ... continue to use `t` for something else

Alternatively, use the even simpler ``wrapattr`` convenience function,
which would condense both the ``urllib`` and ``CallbackIOWrapper`` examples
down to:

.. code:: python

    import urllib, os
    from tqdm import tqdm

    eg_link = "https://caspersci.uk.to/matryoshka.zip"
    response = getattr(urllib, 'request', urllib).urlopen(eg_link)
    with tqdm.wrapattr(open(os.devnull, "wb"), "write",
                       miniters=1, desc=eg_link.split('/')[-1],
                       total=getattr(response, 'length', None)) as fout:
        for chunk in response:

The ``requests`` equivalent is nearly identical:

.. code:: python

    import requests, os
    from tqdm import tqdm

    eg_link = "https://caspersci.uk.to/matryoshka.zip"
    response = requests.get(eg_link, stream=True)
    with tqdm.wrapattr(open(os.devnull, "wb"), "write",
                       miniters=1, desc=eg_link.split('/')[-1],
                       total=int(response.headers.get('content-length', 0))) as fout:
        for chunk in response.iter_content(chunk_size=4096):

**Custom callback**

``tqdm`` is known for intelligently skipping unnecessary displays. To make a
custom callback take advantage of this, simply use the return value of
``update()``. This is set to ``True`` if a ``display()`` was triggered.

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.auto import tqdm as std_tqdm

    def external_callback(*args, **kwargs):

    class TqdmExt(std_tqdm):
        def update(self, n=1):
            displayed = super(TqdmExt, self).update(n)
            if displayed:
            return displayed


Note that ``break`` isn't currently caught by asynchronous iterators.
This means that ``tqdm`` cannot clean up after itself in this case:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.asyncio import tqdm

    async for i in tqdm(range(9)):
        if i == 2:

Instead, either call ``pbar.close()`` manually or use the context manager syntax:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.asyncio import tqdm

    with tqdm(range(9)) as pbar:
        async for i in pbar:
            if i == 2:

Pandas Integration

Due to popular demand we've added support for ``pandas`` -- here's an example
for ``DataFrame.progress_apply`` and ``DataFrameGroupBy.progress_apply``:

.. code:: python

    import pandas as pd
    import numpy as np
    from tqdm import tqdm

    df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randint(0, 100, (100000, 6)))

    # Register `pandas.progress_apply` and `pandas.Series.map_apply` with `tqdm`
    # (can use `tqdm.gui.tqdm`, `tqdm.notebook.tqdm`, optional kwargs, etc.)
    tqdm.pandas(desc="my bar!")

    # Now you can use `progress_apply` instead of `apply`
    # and `progress_map` instead of `map`
    df.progress_apply(lambda x: x**2)
    # can also groupby:
    # df.groupby(0).progress_apply(lambda x: x**2)

In case you're interested in how this works (and how to modify it for your
own callbacks), see the
`examples <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/tree/master/examples>`__
folder or import the module and run ``help()``.

Keras Integration

A ``keras`` callback is also available:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.keras import TqdmCallback


    model.fit(..., verbose=0, callbacks=[TqdmCallback()])

Dask Integration

A ``dask`` callback is also available:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.dask import TqdmCallback

    with TqdmCallback(desc="compute"):

    # or use callback globally
    cb = TqdmCallback(desc="global")

IPython/Jupyter Integration

IPython/Jupyter is supported via the tqdm.notebook submodule:

.. code:: python

from tqdm.notebook import trange, tqdm
from time import sleep

for i in trange(3, desc='1st loop'):
    for j in tqdm(range(100), desc='2nd loop'):

In addition to tqdm features, the submodule provides a native Jupyter widget (compatible with IPython v1-v4 and Jupyter), fully working nested bars and colour hints (blue: normal, green: completed, red: error/interrupt, light blue: no ETA); as demonstrated below.

|Screenshot-Jupyter1| |Screenshot-Jupyter2| |Screenshot-Jupyter3|

The notebook version supports percentage or pixels for overall width (e.g.: ncols='100%' or ncols='480px').

It is also possible to let tqdm automatically choose between console or notebook versions by using the autonotebook submodule:

.. code:: python

from tqdm.autonotebook import tqdm

Note that this will issue a TqdmExperimentalWarning if run in a notebook since it is not meant to be possible to distinguish between jupyter notebook and jupyter console. Use auto instead of autonotebook to suppress this warning.

Note that notebooks will display the bar in the cell where it was created. This may be a different cell from the one where it is used. If this is not desired, either

  • delay the creation of the bar to the cell where it must be displayed, or
  • create the bar with display=False, and in a later cell call display(bar.container):

.. code:: python

from tqdm.notebook import tqdm
pbar = tqdm(..., display=False)

.. code:: python

# different cell

The keras callback has a display() method which can be used likewise:

.. code:: python

from tqdm.keras import TqdmCallback
cbk = TqdmCallback(display=False)

.. code:: python

# different cell
model.fit(..., verbose=0, callbacks=[cbk])

Another possibility is to have a single bar (near the top of the notebook) which is constantly re-used (using reset() rather than close()). For this reason, the notebook version (unlike the CLI version) does not automatically call close() upon Exception.

.. code:: python

from tqdm.notebook import tqdm
pbar = tqdm()

.. code:: python

# different cell
iterable = range(100)
pbar.reset(total=len(iterable))  # initialise with new `total`
for i in iterable:
pbar.refresh()  # force print final status but don't `close()`

Custom Integration

To change the default arguments (such as making ``dynamic_ncols=True``),
simply use built-in Python magic:

.. code:: python

    from functools import partial
    from tqdm import tqdm as std_tqdm
    tqdm = partial(std_tqdm, dynamic_ncols=True)

For further customisation,
``tqdm`` may be inherited from to create custom callbacks (as with the
``TqdmUpTo`` example `above <#hooks-and-callbacks>`__) or for custom frontends
(e.g. GUIs such as notebook or plotting packages). In the latter case:

1. ``def __init__()`` to call ``super().__init__(..., gui=True)`` to disable
   terminal ``status_printer`` creation.
2. Redefine: ``close()``, ``clear()``, ``display()``.

Consider overloading ``display()`` to use e.g.
``self.frontend(**self.format_dict)`` instead of ``self.sp(repr(self))``.

Some submodule examples of inheritance:

- `tqdm/notebook.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/notebook.py>`__
- `tqdm/gui.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/gui.py>`__
- `tqdm/tk.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/tk.py>`__
- `tqdm/contrib/slack.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/contrib/slack.py>`__
- `tqdm/contrib/discord.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/contrib/discord.py>`__
- `tqdm/contrib/telegram.py <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/tqdm/contrib/telegram.py>`__

Dynamic Monitor/Meter

You can use a tqdm as a meter which is not monotonically increasing. This could be because n decreases (e.g. a CPU usage monitor) or total changes.

One example would be recursively searching for files. The total is the number of objects found so far, while n is the number of those objects which are files (rather than folders):

.. code:: python

from tqdm import tqdm
import os.path

def find_files_recursively(path, show_progress=True):
    files = []
    # total=1 assumes `path` is a file
    t = tqdm(total=1, unit="file", disable=not show_progress)
    if not os.path.exists(path):
        raise IOError("Cannot find:" + path)

    def append_found_file(f):

    def list_found_dir(path):
        """returns os.listdir(path) assuming os.path.isdir(path)"""
        listing = os.listdir(path)
        # subtract 1 since a "file" we found was actually this directory
        t.total += len(listing) - 1
        # fancy way to give info without forcing a refresh
        t.set_postfix(dir=path[-10:], refresh=False)
        t.update(0)  # may trigger a refresh
        return listing

    def recursively_search(path):
        if os.path.isdir(path):
            for f in list_found_dir(path):
                recursively_search(os.path.join(path, f))

    return files

Using update(0) is a handy way to let tqdm decide when to trigger a display refresh to avoid console spamming.

Writing messages

This is a work in progress (see
`#737 <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/issues/737>`__).

Since ``tqdm`` uses a simple printing mechanism to display progress bars,
you should not write any message in the terminal using ``print()`` while
a progressbar is open.

To write messages in the terminal without any collision with ``tqdm`` bar
display, a ``.write()`` method is provided:

.. code:: python

    from tqdm.auto import tqdm, trange
    from time import sleep

    bar = trange(10)
    for i in bar:
        # Print using tqdm class method .write()
        if not (i % 3):
            tqdm.write("Done task %i" % i)
        # Can also use bar.write()

By default, this will print to standard output ``sys.stdout``. but you can
specify any file-like object using the ``file`` argument. For example, this
can be used to redirect the messages writing to a log file or class.

Redirecting writing

If using a library that can print messages to the console, editing the library by replacing print() with tqdm.write() may not be desirable. In that case, redirecting sys.stdout to tqdm.write() is an option.

To redirect sys.stdout, create a file-like class that will write any input string to tqdm.write(), and supply the arguments file=sys.stdout, dynamic_ncols=True.

A reusable canonical example is given below:

.. code:: python

from time import sleep
import contextlib
import sys
from tqdm import tqdm
from tqdm.contrib import DummyTqdmFile

def std_out_err_redirect_tqdm():
    orig_out_err = sys.stdout, sys.stderr
        sys.stdout, sys.stderr = map(DummyTqdmFile, orig_out_err)
        yield orig_out_err[0]
    # Relay exceptions
    except Exception as exc:
        raise exc
    # Always restore sys.stdout/err if necessary
        sys.stdout, sys.stderr = orig_out_err

def some_fun(i):
    print("Fee, fi, fo,".split()[i])

# Redirect stdout to tqdm.write() (don't forget the `as save_stdout`)
with std_out_err_redirect_tqdm() as orig_stdout:
    # tqdm needs the original stdout
    # and dynamic_ncols=True to autodetect console width
    for i in tqdm(range(3), file=orig_stdout, dynamic_ncols=True):

# After the `with`, printing is restored

Redirecting logging

Similar to ``sys.stdout``/``sys.stderr`` as detailed above, console ``logging``
may also be redirected to ``tqdm.write()``.

Warning: if also redirecting ``sys.stdout``/``sys.stderr``, make sure to
redirect ``logging`` first if needed.

Helper methods are available in ``tqdm.contrib.logging``. For example:

.. code:: python

    import logging
    from tqdm import trange
    from tqdm.contrib.logging import logging_redirect_tqdm

    LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

    if __name__ == '__main__':
        with logging_redirect_tqdm():
            for i in trange(9):
                if i == 4:
                    LOG.info("console logging redirected to `tqdm.write()`")
        # logging restored

Monitoring thread, intervals and miniters

tqdm implements a few tricks to increase efficiency and reduce overhead.

  • Avoid unnecessary frequent bar refreshing: mininterval defines how long to wait between each refresh. tqdm always gets updated in the background, but it will display only every mininterval.
  • Reduce number of calls to check system clock/time.
  • mininterval is more intuitive to configure than miniters. A clever adjustment system dynamic_miniters will automatically adjust miniters to the amount of iterations that fit into time mininterval. Essentially, tqdm will check if it's time to print without actually checking time. This behaviour can be still be bypassed by manually setting miniters.

However, consider a case with a combination of fast and slow iterations. After a few fast iterations, dynamic_miniters will set miniters to a large number. When iteration rate subsequently slows, miniters will remain large and thus reduce display update frequency. To address this:

  • maxinterval defines the maximum time between display refreshes. A concurrent monitoring thread checks for overdue updates and forces one where necessary.

The monitoring thread should not have a noticeable overhead, and guarantees updates at least every 10 seconds by default. This value can be directly changed by setting the monitor_interval of any tqdm instance (i.e. t = tqdm.tqdm(...); t.monitor_interval = 2). The monitor thread may be disabled application-wide by setting tqdm.tqdm.monitor_interval = 0 before instantiation of any tqdm bar.


You can buy tqdm branded merch <https://tqdm.github.io/merch>__ now!


|GitHub-Commits| |GitHub-Issues| |GitHub-PRs| |OpenHub-Status| |GitHub-Contributions| |CII Best Practices|

All source code is hosted on GitHub <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm>__. Contributions are welcome.

See the CONTRIBUTING <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md>__ file for more information.

Developers who have made significant contributions, ranked by SLoC (surviving lines of code, git fame <https://github.com/casperdcl/git-fame>__ -wMC --excl '\.(png|gif|jpg)$'), are:

==================== ======================================================== ==== ================================ Name ID SLoC Notes ==================== ======================================================== ==== ================================ Casper da Costa-Luis casperdcl <https://github.com/casperdcl> ~78% primary maintainer |Gift-Casper| Stephen Larroque lrq3000 <https://github.com/lrq3000> ~10% team member Martin Zugnoni martinzugnoni <https://github.com/martinzugnoni> ~4% Daniel Ecer de-code <https://github.com/de-code> ~2% Richard Sheridan richardsheridan <https://github.com/richardsheridan> ~1% Guangshuo Chen chengs <https://github.com/chengs> ~1% Kyle Altendorf altendky <https://github.com/altendky> <1% Matthew Stevens mjstevens777 <https://github.com/mjstevens777> <1% Hadrien Mary hadim <https://github.com/hadim> <1% team member Noam Yorav-Raphael noamraph <https://github.com/noamraph> <1% original author Mikhail Korobov kmike <https://github.com/kmike>__ <1% team member ==================== ======================================================== ==== ================================

Ports to Other Languages

A list is available on
`this wiki page <https://github.com/tqdm/tqdm/wiki/tqdm-ports>`__.


Open Source (OSI approved): |LICENCE|

Citation information: |DOI|

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