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tino

A one-of-a-kind, stupid fast, Python API using Redis Protocol and MsgPack

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Tino

The one-of-a-kind, stupid fast, Python API using Redis Protocol and MsgPack

tino

What is Tino?

Tino is a framework to remotely call functions. It builds both clients and servers.

Traditional APIs are JSON over HTTP. Tino is Msgpack over the Redis Serialization Protocol. This makes it go faster, use less bandwidth, and its binary format easier to understand.

Highlights

  • Redis Protocol
  • MessagePack Serialization
  • Pydantic for automatically parsing rich datastructures
  • Fast. Up to 10x faster than the fastest HTTP Python framework + client combination.
  • Small. Under 500 lines of code.
  • Able to run multiple workers with uvicorn (more below)

Does Tino use Redis?

No. Tino uses RESP, the Redis Serialization Protocol, to encode messages over TCP. Tino only needs Redis if the service you build adds it.

Generalizing the Redis Protocol

Tino was born after a long search to find an alternative to HTTP. The protocol is great for the web, but for backend server-to-server services, it is a bit overkill. HTTP2 tried to fix some of the problems, but ended up as is a mess of statemachines, multiplexing, and header compression algorithms that proper clients took years to come out and some languages still haven't implemented it fully.

RESP, the Redis Serialization Protocol, is a Request-Response model with a very simple human readable syntax. It is also very fast to parse which makes it a great candidate for use in an API. After a weekend of hacking, a proof of concept was born and Tino quickly followed.

MessagePack for Serialization

It is fast, can enable zero-copy string and bytes decoding, and the most important, it is only an afternoon of hacking to get a serializer and parser going.

MessagePack paired with RESP means that you can implement the entire stack, protocol and serialization, by yourself from scratch if you needed to without too much trouble. And it will be fast.

Uvicorn

Tino is built on the popular ASGI server Uvicorn. Its still a bit of a work in progress as Tino is NOT an ASGI framework so we get some warnings, but things are working. See run_tino_multi.py for an example of passing Uvicorn arguments. SSL and workers are working but I wouldn't expect too many other config options to work.

Why not ProtocolBuffers, CapnProto, etc.

Most other protocols that you have to generate are much much much more complex and thus are not widely implemented. The support of individual languages is iffy too. By choosing a simple protocol and simple serialization, we have ensured that we have a client in nearly language as nearly every language has a Redis client and MsgPack library.

The Basics

Tino follows closely the design of FastAPI. Type annotations are required for both arguments and return values so that values can automatically be parsed and serialized. In Redis all commands are arrays. The position of your argument in the signature of the function matches the position of the string array of the redis command. Tino commands can not contain keyword arguments. Tino will automatically fill in and parse Pydantic models.

# server.py
from tino import Tino
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = Tino()

class NumberInput(BaseModel):
    value: int

@app.command
def add(a: int, b: NumberInput) -> int:
    return a + b.value

if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.run()

Now you can run commands against the server using any Redis api in any language as long as the client supports custom Redis commands (most do).

Or you can use Tino's builtin high-performance client:

# client.py
import asyncio
from server import app, NumberInput # import the app from above

async def go():
    client = app.client()
    await client.connect()

    three = await client.add(1, NumberInput(value=2))

    client.close()
    await client.wait_closed()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    asyncio.run(go())

Authorization

Tino has authorization by adding AuthRequired to the type signature of the methods you want to protect and supplying the Tino object with an auth_func. The auth_func takes a bytes object and returns None if the connection failed authorization or any other value symbolizing the authorization state if they succeeded.

from tino import Tino

KEYS = {
    b'tinaspassword': 'tina'
}
def auth_func(password: bytes):
    return KEYS.get(password, None)

app = Tino(auth_func=auth_func)

@app.command
def add(a: int, b: int, auth: AuthRequired) -> int:
    print(auth.value)
    return a + b

And pass the password to the client.connect.

async def do():
    client = app.client()
    await client.connect(password="tinaspassword")

Other Magic Arguments

Besides AuthRequired you can also add Auth (where auth.value can be None) and ConnState to get the state if you also supply a state_factory. This state is mutatable and is private to the connection.

from tino import Tino

async def state_factory():
    return 0

app = Tino(state_factory=state_factory)

@app.command
def add(a: int, b: int, auth: Auth, conn: ConnState) -> int:
    # Count the number of unauthorized calls on this connection.
    if auth.value is None:
        conn.value += 1
    return a + b

Is Tino Secure?

Probably the biggest vulnerability is a DDOS attack. More testing needs to be done to see how Tino behaves under large message sizes. Currently placing views behind AuthRequired does not protect against this because the entire message is parsed. So for the time being, Tino should only be considered for private connections. This can be improved however, by parsing the command first, doing the permission check then reading and parsing the body.

What about Databases?

For SQL I recommend using the databases project with SQLAlchemy to get true asyncio support. This example is borrowed from fastapi

from tino import Tino
import databases
import sqlalchemy
from typing import List

# SQLAlchemy specific code, as with any other app
DATABASE_URL = "sqlite:///./test.db"
# DATABASE_URL = "postgresql://user:password@postgresserver/db"

database = databases.Database(DATABASE_URL)

metadata = sqlalchemy.MetaData()

notes = sqlalchemy.Table(
    "notes",
    metadata,
    sqlalchemy.Column("id", sqlalchemy.Integer, primary_key=True),
    sqlalchemy.Column("text", sqlalchemy.String),
    sqlalchemy.Column("completed", sqlalchemy.Boolean),
)


engine = sqlalchemy.create_engine(
    DATABASE_URL, connect_args={"check_same_thread": False}
)
metadata.create_all(engine)


class NoteIn(BaseModel):
    text: str
    completed: bool


class Note(BaseModel):
    id: int
    text: str
    completed: bool


app = Tino()

@app.on_startup
async def startup():
    await database.connect()


@app.on_shutdown
async def shutdown():
    await database.disconnect()

@app.command
async def read_notes() -> List[Note]:
    query = notes.select()
    rows = await database.fetch_all(query)
    return [Note(**n) for n in rows]


@app.command
async def create_note(note: NoteIn) -> Note:
    query = notes.insert().values(text=note.text, completed=note.completed)
    last_record_id = await database.execute(query)
    return Note(id=last_record_id, **note.dict())



if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.run()

Should I use Tino in Production?

Its not ready for public consumption at the moment, but if you want my help to run it, just drop me a line and we will make it happen. me at khanson dot io

TLS Support

Its probably easiest to deploy Tino behind a TCP loadbalancer that already supports TLS. You can pass in the SSLContext to the client.connect function as kwargs to the Redis connection pool.

Benchmarks

This is run with uvicorn as a single worker. httpx seemed to be a major point of performance problems so I also benchmarked against ab (apache benchmark). However, httpx results are typical of what you would see if you were using python-to-python communication.

httpx is abysmal at concurrent requests. Anything over a few thousand and it slows to a crawl. To test multiple connections, I instead chained together the single connection bench with the unix operator & to execute 100 scripts in parrellel.

tino client did not suffer the same fate and scaled to handle hundreds of thousands of tasks with ease. However, there were some slight performance gains from chaining together 10 processses of 10 connections.

This is a micro benchmark of echoing a 1234 character unicode string of emojis. Each test, except the last, are ran with 6 workers on the server.

Screen Shot 2020-06-10 at 12 54 54 AM

More comprehensive benchmarks of multiple workers, different content sizes, requiring authorization would also be good to have. However, these are contrived and strictly meant to show the overhead of the protocol and serializers.

Coming Soon

  • Iterators

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