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tableau_tools

Package containing Tableau REST API, XML modification, tabcmd and repository tools

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tableau_tools README


tableau_tools was originally written by Bryant Howell and is documented mainly at tableauandbehold.com and within this README and the examples. The main repository for tableau_tools is https://github.com/bryanthowell-tableau/tableau_tools/ . It is owned by Tableau Software but is not an officially supported library. If you have questions or issues with the library, please make an issue on the GitHub site. Tableau Support will not answer questions regarding the code.

tableau_tools is intended to be a simple-to-use library to handle all Tableau Server needs. The tableau_rest_api sub-package is a complete implementation of the Tableau Server REST API (https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/api/rest_api/en-us/help.htm#REST/rest_api.htm ). The tableau_documents sub-package works directly with Tableau files to do manipulations necessary for making programmatic changes. There is an examples folder filled with scripts that do the most common Tableau Server administrative challenges.

How to Install: The latest version should always be available on PyPi (https://pypi.python.org). This means you can install or upgrade via the standard pip tool using the following command

pip install tableau_tools

or

pip install tableau_tools --upgrade

If installing on Linux or macOS, you made need to run those commands using sudo.

If you are new to Python and using Windows, once you have installed Python, you should add to your Windows PATH variable so that you can call Python and pip from any directory. If you don't know what the PATH is, the following explains how to add to it: https://www.howtogeek.com/118594/how-to-edit-your-system-path-for-easy-command-line-access/

The necessary additions to the PATH are (adjust if you are using a Python 3 environment):

;C:\Python37;C:\Python37\Scripts

If you are installing on Windows and getting issues related to SSL, it's possible that you have a corporate proxy. A method around this is to use Fiddler, which by default opens up a proxy on 127.0.0.1, port 8888. Once Fiddler is open and running, you can do the following command, which tells pip to use the Fiddler proxy, and to trusted pypi.python.org regardless of any SSL certificate issues.

set http_proxy=127.0.0.1:8888
pip install --proxy 127.0.0.1:8888 --trusted-host pypi.python.org tableau_tools

(A bit more explanation on the SSL issues here https://stackoverflow.com/questions/25981703/pip-install-fails-with-connection-error-ssl-certificate-verify-failed-certi)

Notes on Getting Started: Some of the methods return Element objects which can be manipulated via standard ElementTree methods.

tableau_tools was programmed using PyCharm and works very well in that IDE. It is highly recommended if you are going to code with tableau_tools.

Version history


  • 1.5.2: works with 9.1 and before. Python 2.7 compatible
  • 2.0.0+: works with 9.2 (and previous versions as well). Python 2.7 compatible
  • 2.1.0+: works with 9.3 (previous versions as well). Python 2.7 compatible
  • 3.0.0+: tableau_rest_api library refactored and added to new tableau_tools package
  • 4.0.0: Big rewrite to simplify and improve. You will need to update your scripts most likely.
  • 4.3.0: 10.5 (API 2.8) compatibility, 100% coverage of all features in the spec, and refactoring in the code itself.
  • README vastly updated to cover all topics.
  • 4.4.0: A lot of improvements to the tableau_documents library and its documentation
  • 4.5.0: 2018.1 (API 3.0) compatibility. All requests for a given connection using a single HTTP session, and other improvements to the RestXmlRequest class.
  • 4.7.0: Dropping API 2.0 (Tableau 9.0) compatibility. Any method that is overwritten in a later version will not be updated in the TableauRestApiConnection class going forward. Also implemented a direct_xml_request parameter for Add and Update methods, allowing direct submission of an ElementTree.Element request to the endpoints, particularly for replication.
  • 4.8.0 Introduces the RestJsonRequest object and _json plural querying methods for passing JSON responses to other systems
  • 4.9.0 API 3.3 (2019.1) compatibility, as well as ability to swap in static files using TableauDocument and other bug fixes.
  • 5.0.0 Python 3.6+ native rewrite. Completely re-organized in the backend, with two models for accessing Rest API methods: TableauRestApiConnection (backwards-compatible) and TableauServerRest, with subclasses grouping the methods.
  • 6.0.0 Final version by Bryant Howell. Removes the legacy TableauRestApiConnection class and many of the "version specific" checks so that it can be used with newer API versions and options without restriction. Sections 5 and 6 added to README to document internal methods

--- Table(au) of Contents ---

0. Getting Started

0.0 Examples

Within the installed package, there is an examples sub-directory with a bunch of functional examples as well as ones that start with "test_suite" that show how to use almost any method in the library.

It may be easier just to find them all on GitHub at https://github.com/bryantbhowell/tableau_tools/tree/5.0.0/examples , and then download them to your own local directories and start trying them out.

0.1 Importing tableau_tools library into your scripts

If you just import tableau_tools per the following, you will have access to the tableau_rest_api sub-package:

from tableau_tools import *

If you need to use tableau_documents, use the following import statements:

from tableau_tools import *
from tableau_tools.tableau_documents import *

0.2 Logger class

The Logger class implements useful and verbose logging to a plain text file that all of the other objects can use. You declare a single Logger object, then pass it to the other objects, resulting in a single continuous log file of all actions.

Logger(filename)

If you want to log something in your script into this log, you can call

Logger.log(l)

where l is a string. You do not need to add a "\n", it will be added automatically.

The Logger class, starting in tableau_tools 5.1, has multiple options to show different levels of response.

By default, the Logger will only show the HTTP requests with URI, along the chain of nested methods used to perform the actions.

Logger.enable_request_logging()

will display the string version of the XML requests sent along with the HTTP requests.

Logger.enable_response_logging()

will display the string version of all XML responses in the logs. This is far more verbose, so is only suggested when you are encountering errors based on expectations of what should be in the response.

Logger.enable_debug_level()

makes the Logger indent the lines of the log, so that you can see the nesting of the actions that happen more easily. This is what the logs looked like in previous version of tableau_tools, but now it must be turned on if you want that mode.

0.3 TableauRestXml class

There is a class called TableauRestXml which holds static methods and properties that are useful on any Tableau REST XML request or response.

TableauServerRest inherits from this class so you can call any of the methods from one of those objects rather than calling it directly.

0.4 tableau_exceptions

The tableau_exceptions file defines a variety of Exceptions that are specific to Tableau, particularly the REST API. They are not very complex, and most simply include a msg property that will clarify the problem if logged

0.5 ElementTree.Element for XML handling

All XML in tableau_tools is handled through ElementTree. It is aliased as ET per the standard Python documentation (https://docs.python.org/3/library/xml.etree.elementtree.html) . If you see a return type of ET.Element, that means you are dealing with an ElementTree.Element object -- basically the raw response from the Tableau REST API, or some kind of slice of one.

Because they are ElementTree.Element objects, you can use the .find() and findall() methods to do a limited sub-set of XPath queries on the responses. XPath isn't the easiest thing to do, and often the Tableau Server REST API has direct filtering mechanisms available in the requests. If you see a parameter on a method that appears to limit the result set of a request, please try that first as it is will implement the fastest and most correct algorithm known to the tableau_tools authors.

1. tableau_rest_api sub-package

tableau_tools.tableau_rest_api sub-package is designed to fully implement every feature in every version of the Tableau Server REST API. As much as possible, every action that is available in the reference guide here

https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/api/rest_api/en-us/REST/rest_api_ref.htm#API_Reference

is implemented as a method using the same name. For example, the action listed as "Get Users in Group" is implemented as TableauServerRest.groups.get_users_in_group() . There are a few places where there are deviations from this pattern, but in general you can start typing based on what you see in the reference and find the method implementing it.

1.1 Connecting

1.1.1 TableauServerRest classes

tableau_tools 6.0+ implements two object types for accessing the methods of the Tableau Server REST API: TableauServerRest. Previous versions had a TableauRestApiConnection class, which included ALL methods on that one object. Converting old TableauRestApiConnection code to the modern TableauServerRest class in most cases simply involves adding the correct "sub-object" for that type of method: i.e. TableauRestApiConnection.create_group() becomes TableauServerRest.groups.create_group().

The base TableauServerRest class of the 6.0 release implements the 3.2 version of the REST API. If you are using a version of Tableau older than this, please look into upgrading as soon as possible, as they are out of support. Then later versions of the API are represented by appending the API version to the class name. For example, if you want to use the API for Tableau Server 2021.1 (API Version 3.11), you would instantiate a TableauServerRest311 object. In general, you can always use an older version of the API with a newer version of Tableau Server, unless you know of a major change in how something behaves, or want to use the latest features.

The first set of objects, which are compatible with scripts from the 4.0 series of tableau_tools, are the TableauRestApiConnection classes. These implement all methods directly on the TableauRestApiConnection class.

The TableauServerRest objects group the available methods into related sub-objects, for ease of organization. Basic functionalities, including the translation between real names and LUIDs, are still on the base class itself. For example, you still use TableauServerRest.signin() , but you would use TableauServerRest.projects.update_project() rather than TableauRestApiConnection.update_project() .

The TableauServerRest classes are:

TableauServerRest(server, username, password, site_content_url=""): 2018.3

TableauServerRest32: 2018.3

TableauServerRest33: 2019.1

TableauServerRest34: 2019.2

TableauServerRest35: 2019.3

TableauServerRest36(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2019.4

TableauServerRest37(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2020.1

TableauServerRest38(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2020.2

TableauServerRest39(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2020.3

TableauServerRest310(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2020.4

TableauServerRest311(server, username=None, password=None, site_content_url="", pat_name=None, pat_secret=None): 2021.1

You need to initialize at least one object of either of the two class types. Ex.:

t = TableauServerRest36(server="http://127.0.0.1", pat_name="ripFatPat", pat_secret="qlE1g9MMh9vbrjjg==:rZTHhPpP2tUW1kfn4tjg8", site_content_url="fifth_ward")

The actual methods, whether attached directly or as sub-classes, are implemented in the same class files. This means that the two object types are equivalent -- they are calling the same code in the end, and yo'll ever have to choose between the two styles to get a particular feature.

1.1.2 Enabling Logging

logger = Logger("log_file.txt")
TableauServerRest.enable_logging(logger)

1.1.3 Signing in

The TableauServerRest object doesn't actually sign in and create a session until you make a signin() call

Ex.

  t = TableauServerRest33("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="site1")
t.signin()
logger = Logger("log_file.txt")
t.enable_logging(logger)

Now that you are signed-in, the object will hold all of the session state information and can be used to make any number of calls to that Site.

You can signin AS another user as well, through impersonation. You must first get that user's LUID for the given site you want to sign into:

t = TableauServerRest("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="site1")
# Most LUID lookups live in the main object of TableauServerRest
t.signin()
user_luid = t.query_user_luid('a.user')
t2 = TableauServerRest("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="site1")
t2.signin(user_luid_to_impersonate=user_luid)

Starting in API 3.6 (2019.4+), you can use a Personal Access Token to signin rather than username and password. Simply use the pat_name and pat_secret optional parameters rather than username and password in the signin() method. One note: as of this writing, you cannot do an impersonation signin when using PAT instead of username/password credentials. But always check the most recent documentation of the Tableau Server REST API to see if things have changed.

1.1.4 Connecting to multiple sites

The Tableau REST API only allows a session to a single Site at a time. To deal with multiple sites, you can create multiple objects representing each site. To sign in to a site, you need the site_content_url, which is the portion of the URL that represents the Site.

TableauServerRest.sites.query_all_site_content_urls()

returns an list that can be iterated over. You must sign-in to one site first to get this list however. So if you wanted to do an action to all sites, do the following:

default = TableauServerRest34("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd")
default.signin()
site_content_urls = default.query_all_site_content_urls()

for site_content_url in site_content_urls:
    t = TableauServerRest34("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url=site_content_url)
    t.signin()
    ...

1.1.5 Signout, Killing Other Sessions, and Swapping Tokens

The signout() method called by itself will send the Sign Out REST API command to the server for the username that the object was created as. It also implements an optional parameter that lets you sign out a different session:

t.signout(session_token='buerojh8b4L2-b208guDSVD!--038bSVE')

Depending on how your Tableau Server is connected, you may be able to use session values retrieved from the Tableau Server Repository in this function to sign-out (i.e. kill) regular user sessions or other REST API sessions you want to end.

The REST API session you are connected to is represented by a token, which the object stores internally after a successful .signon() . There may be situations where you would like to retrieve that token, or even swap in different tokens, so that the object doesn't have to be recreated just to send a message. One example of this is a RESTful web service that must impersonate multiple users, and otherwise would generate a new object for each user/site connection.

Swapping in a different session into the main objects requires more than just the session_token. If you need to do this, use swap_token(site_luid: str, user_luid: str, token: str)

You can get all of the values from the previous object, if it has been signed in. You also must have signed in to the second object at least once, because that initializes much of the other internal properties correctly.:

t = TableauServerRest(server='http://127.0.0.1', username='usrnm', password='nowthatsabigpass', site_content_url='some_site')
t.signin()
first_site_luid = t.site_luid
first_user_luid = t.user_luid
first_token = t.token

t2 = TableauServerRest(server='http://127.0.0.1', username='a.nother', password='passittotheleft', site_content_url='some_site_other_site')
t2.signin()
t2.swap_token(site_luid=first_site_luid, user_luid=first_user_luid, token=first_token)

Now any actions you take with t2 will be the same session to the Tableau Server as those taken with t1. This can also be very useful for multi-threaded programming, where you may want to clone instances of an object so that they don't interact with one another while doing things on different threads, but still use the same REST API session.

1.2 Basics and Querying

NOTE: If you are using a 5.0.0 series release and get a "RecursionError: maximum recursion depth exceeded" Exception, it generally means that you are trying a method that does not exist. The most common reason for this with the TableauServerRest objects is when porting code over from TableauRestApiConnection objects. All methods except for lookups live under a sub-object (t.users.method()) in TableauServerRest, so if you put a method directly on the main object, it will try and search for it but error out. This issue can work the other way, if you try and use a sub-object under TableauRestApiConnection when it doesn't exist.

That issue should no longer be present in 6.0.0 releases, which removed the "search for any method name" reference that caused the issue

1.2.0 ElementTree.Element XML Responses

As mentioned in the 0 section, tableau_tools returns ElementTree.Element responses for any XML request. To know exactly what is available in any given object coming back from the Tableau REST API, you'll need to either consult the REST API Reference or convert to it something you can write to the console or a text file.

t = TableauServerRest("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="site1")
t.signin()
groups = t.groups.query_groups()
print(ET.tostring(groups))

If it is a collection of elements, you can iterate through using the standard Python for.. in loop. If you know there is an attribute you want (per the Reference or the printed response), you can access it via the .get(attribute_name) method of the Element object:

for group in groups:
    print(ET.tostring(group))
    group_luid = group.get('id')
    group_name = group.get('name')

Some XML responses are more complex, with element nodes within other elements. An example of this would be workbooks, which have a project tag inside the workbook tag. The Pythonic way is to iterate through the workbook object to get to the sub-objects. You must watch out, though, because the Tableau REST API uses XML Namespaces, so you can't simply match the tag names directly using the == operator. Instead, you are better off using .find() string method to find a match with the tag name you are looking for:

wbs = t.workbooks.query_workbooks()
for wb in wbs:
    print(ET.tostring(wb))
    for elem in wb:
        # Only want the project element inside
        if elem.tag.find('project') != -1:
            proj_luid = elem.get('id')
            
1.2.0.1 Underlying Base Methods

This section is only useful or necessary if you are investigating an issue with the library, or need to do something from the reference guide that is not implemented yet with its own dedicated methods.

The rest_api_base class implements a number of methods which are used by the more specific methods. These actualy perform the basic REST API actions, along with Tableau Server specific checks and algorithms.

For a much deeper dive into this, intended for people adding to or fixing issues with the library, see Section 6.

For example:

query_resource(url_ending: str, server_level:bool = False, 
filters: Optional[List[UrlFilter]] = None, 
sorts: Optional[List[Sort]] = None, 
additional_url_ending: Optional[str] = None, 
fields: Optional[List[str]] = None) -> ET.Element

Is the underlying abstracted method that almost all "query_{element}s" methods actually use. It sends an HTTP GET request, and then returns back the response. If a new endpoint has been added to Tableau Server, before tableau_tools is updated, you could directly use query_resource:

xml = t.query_resource(url_ending="newthings")
# or
xml = t.query_resource(url_ending="newserverlevelthings", server_level=True)

The query_resource method automatically builds the first part of the URL based on the currently signed in site / user / etc., so you only have to pass in the part of the URL after the site luid. The "server_level" flag tells the URL builder to omit the site luid, for those endpoints that are server-wide. And you can see the other parameters that are available for constructing more complex queries.

Similarly, there is a query_resource_json() for receiving back a JSON response to the same type of requests.

There are other query_ methods available in RestApiBase, but they typically implement lookup or search mechanisms that are tailored to the particulars of the various objects on Tableau Server, so you should only be looking at them for bug-fixes or if you were trying to expand the library.

The basic HTTP actions to the REST API are all implemented via methods that begin with send_:

send_post_request(url: str) -> ET.Element
send_add_request(url: str, request: ET.Element) -> ET.Element
send_update_request(url: str, request: ET.Element) -> ET.Element
send_delete_request(url: str) -> int
send_publish_request(url: str, xml_request: Optional[ET.Element], content: bytes, boundary_string: str) -> ET.Element
send_append_request(url: str, content: bytes, boundary_string: str) -> ET.Element
send_binary_get_request(url: str) -> bytes

If there was a particular new endpoint that you needed to POST an XML element to to add to, you could accomplish using send_add_request (send_post_request exists for POSTs with no request content)

tsr = ET.Element('tsRequest')
e = ET.Element('newContentType')
e.set('name', 'My.Name')
tsr.append(e)
new_luid = t.send_add_request(url='newcontenttypes', request=tsr)

Internally if you look at most add methods, this is fundamentally how they are all constructed.

For historical reasons, the actual HTTP connections are handled in a separate class and object entirely, either RestXmlRequest or RestJsonRequest, rather than performed directly within RestApiBase. Those objects both use the standad requests library to handle their HTTP actions. Unless you are updating the library to handle a vastly new situation with regards to request or response types with the REST API, it is unlikely you'll ever need to look into the details of those objects or attempt to access them directly.

1.2.1 LUIDs - Locally Unique IDentifiers

The Tableau REST API represents each object on the server (project, workbook, user, group, etc.) with a Locally Unique IDentifier (LUID). Every command other than the sign-in to a particular site (which uses the site_content_url) requires a LUID. LUIDs are returned when you create an object on the server, or they can be retrieved by the Query methods and then searched to find the matching LUID. In the XML or JSON, they are labeled with the id value, but tableau_tools specifically refers to them as LUID throughout, because there are other Tableau IDs in the Tableau Server repoistory.

tableau_tools handles translations between real world names and LUIDs automatically for the vast majority of methods. Any argument names that can accept both LUIDs and names are named along the pattern : "..._name_or_luid".

There are few cases where only the LUID can be accepted. In this case, the parameter will show just "_luid".

1.2.2 Plural querying methods and converting to { name : luid} Dict

The simplest method for getting information from the REST API are the "plural" querying methods

TableauServerRest.groups.query_groups()

TableauServerRest.users.query_users(username_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.query_workbooks()

TableauServerRest.projects.query_projects()

TableauServerRest.datasources.query_datasources()

TableauServerRest.workbooks.query_workbook_views()

These will all return an ElementTree object representing the results from the REST API call. This can be useful if you need all of the information returned, but most of your calls to these methods will be to get a dictionary of names : luids you can use for lookup. There is a simple static method for this conversion

TableauServerRest.convert_xml_list_to_name_id_dict(xml_obj)

Ex.

default = TableauServerRest34("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd")
default.signin()
groups = default.query_groups()
groups_dict = default.convert_xml_list_to_name_id_dict(groups)

for group_name in groups_dict:
    print "Group name {} is LUID {}".format(group_name, groups_dict[group_name])

There are also equivalent JSON querying methods for the plural methods, which return a Python str object, using the Tableau REST API's native method for requesting JSON responses rather than XML.

The JSON plural query methods allow you to specify the page of results using the page= optional parameter(starting at 1). If you do not specify a page, tableau_tools will automatically paginate through all results and combine them together.

TableauServerRest.groups.query_groups_json(page_number=None)

TableauServerRest.users.query_users_json(page_number=None)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.query_workbooks_json(username_or_luid, page_number=None)

TableauServerRest.projects.query_projects_json(page_number=None)

TableauServerRest.datasources.query_datasources_json(page_number=None)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.query_workbook_views_json(page_number=None)

1.2.2.1 Filtering and Sorting

`The classes implement filtering and sorting for the methods directly against the REST API where it is allowed. Singular lookup methods are programmed to take advantage of this automatically for improved performance, but the plural querying methods can use the filters to bring back specific sets.

http://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/api/rest_api/en-us/help.htm#REST/rest_api_concepts_filtering_and_sorting.htm%3FTocPath%3DConcepts%7C_____7

You should definitely check in the REST API reference as to which filters can be applied to which calls. Most of the function parameters should give you the expected filter (you can use a plural or singular version).

For example, query_projects will run by itself, but it also contains optional parameters for each of the filter types it can take.

TableauServerRest.projects.query_projects(self, name_filter=None, owner_name_filter=None, updated_at_filter=None, created_at_filter=None, owner_domain_filter=None, owner_email_filter=None, sorts=None)

Filters can be passed via a UrlFilter class object. However, you do not need to generate them directly, but instead should use factory methods (all starting with "get_" to make sure you get them created with the right options. Both TableauServerRest and TableauRestApiConnection have a .url_filters property which gives you access to the correct UrlFilters object for that version of the API. This is the easiest access point and can be used like:

t = TableauServerRest(server='', username='', password='')
name_filter = t.url_filters.get_name_filter(name='some name to look for')

The following lists all of the available factory methods (although check with the IDE using autocomplete as there may be more):

UrlFilter.get_name_filter(name)

UrlFilter.get_site_role_filter(site_role)

UrlFilter.get_owner_name_filter(owner_name)

UrlFilter.get_created_at_filter(operator, created_at_time)

UrlFilter.get_updated_at_filter(operator, updated_at_time)

UrlFilter.get_last_login_filter(operator, last_login_time)

UrlFilter.get_tags_filter(tags)

UrlFilter.get_tag_filter(tag)

UrlFilter.get_datasource_type_filter(ds_type)

UrlFilter.get_names_filter(names)

UrlFilter.get_site_roles_filter(site_roles)

UrlFilter.get_owner_names_filter(owner_names)

UrlFilter.get_domain_names_filter(domain_names)

UrlFilter.get_domain_nicknames_filter(domain_nicknames)

UrlFilter.get_domain_name_filter(domain_name)

UrlFilter.get_domain_nickname_filter(domain_nickname)

UrlFilter.get_minimum_site_roles_filter(minimum_site_roles)

UrlFilter.get_minimum_site_role_filter(minimum_site_role)

UrlFilter.get_is_local_filter(is_local)

UrlFilter.get_user_count_filter(operator, user_count)

UrlFilter.get_owner_domains_filter(owner_domains)

UrlFilter.get_owner_domain_filter(owner_domain)

UrlFilter.get_owner_emails_filter(owner_emails)

UrlFilter.get_owner_email_filter(owner_email)

UrlFilter.get_hits_total_filter(operator, hits_total)

Note that times must be specified with a full ISO 8601 format as shown below, however you can just pass a datetime.datetime object and the methods will convert automatically

Ex.

import datetime
# t = TableauServerRest...
bryant_filter = t.url_filters.get_owner_name_filter('Bryant')
t_filter = t.url_filters.get_tags_filter(['sales', 'sandbox'])
# If you manually want to set this time format:
# ca_filter = t.url_filters.get_created_at_filter('gte', '2016-01-01T00:00:00:00Z')
now = datetime.datetime.now()
offset_time = datetime.timedelta(days=1)
time_to_filter_by = now - offset_time
ca_filter = t.url_filters.get_created_at_filter('gte', time_to_filter_by)
t.workbooks.query_workbooks(owner_name_filter=bryant_filter, tags_filter=t_filter, created_at_filter=ca_filter)

There is also a Sort object, but it is best to use the static factory methods through the .sorts property of the main REST connection objects:

Sort.Ascending(field: str) -> Sort Sort.Descending(field:str) -> Sort

Sorts can be passed as a list to those methods that can accept them like the following:

# t = TableauServerRest( ...
s = t.sorts.Ascending('name')
t.query_workbooks(owner_name_filter=bryant_filter, tags_filter=t_filter, sorts=[s,])
1.2.2.2 Fields

Some REST API endpoints allow you to specify fields, which all for bringing back additional fields not in the original specifications for certain calls, or limit down what is retrieved so that there is not so much additional to process through.

Fields are only available on certain calls, detailed here:

https://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/api/rest_api/en-us/help.htm#REST/rest_api_concepts_fields.htm%3FTocPath%3DConcepts%7C_____8

Where a field reduction can improve efficiency, it is implemented without any need to call it explicitly.

For the calls where there is MORE information available now with fields, they all have been converted to automatically call the "_all_" method of the fields, to bring back everything. If you instead want to send a particular set of fields, you can include them as a list of unicode values. Just make sure to the look at the reference guide for what to send.

For example, the definition of query_users() looks like:

TableauServerRest.users.query_users(all_fields=True, last_login_filter=None, site_role_filter=None, sorts=None, fields=None)

You can use like this to specify specific fields only to come back:

t.users.query_users(fields=['name', 'id', 'lastLogin')

(This is a lot more useful on something like query_workbooks which has additional info about the owner and the project which are not included in the defaults).

1.2.3 LUID Lookup Methods

There are numerous methods for finding an LUID based on the name of a piece of content. Because LUID lookup for all types is useful to almost any commands, these methods live in the main class, even in TableauServerRest. An example is:

TableauServerRest.query_group_luid(name)

These methods are very useful when you need a LUID to generate another action. You shouldn't need these methods very frequently, as the majority of methods will do the lookup automatically if a name is passed in.

However, if you do have a LUID from a call or a create method, it will be faster to pass in the LUIDs, particularly for large lists.

1.2.4 Singular querying methods

There are methods for getting the XML just for a single object, but they actually require calling to the plural methods internally in many cases where there is no singular method actually implemented in Tableau Server.

Most methods follow this pattern:

TableauServerRest.projects.query_project(name_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.users.query_user(username_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.datasources.query_datasource(ds_name_or_luid, proj_name_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.query_workbook(wb_name_or_luid, p_name_or_luid=None, username_or_luid=None)

Yo'll notice that query_workbook and query_datasource include parameters for the project (and the username for workbooks). This is because workbook and datasource names are only unique within a Project of a Site, not within a Site. If you search without the project specified, the method will return a workbook if only one is found, but if multiple are found, it will throw a MultipleMatchesFoundException .

Unlike almost every other singular method, query_project returns a Project object, which is necessary when setting Permissions, rather than an ET.Element . This does take some amount of time, because all of the underlying permissions and default permissions on the project are requested when creating the Project object

TableauServerRest.projects.query_project(project_name_or_luid) : returns Project

If you just need to look at the values from the XML, can request the XML element using:

TableauServerRest.projects.query_project_xml_object(project_name_or_luid(

or if you already have a Project object, you can access it this way:

Project.get_xml_obj()

1.2.5 Querying Permissions

Because Permissions actually exist and attach to Published Content on the Tableau Server, all Permissions are handled through one of the derived PublishedContent classes (Project, Workbook, or Datasource). There are no direct methods to access them, because the PublishedContent methods include the most efficient algorithms for updating Permissions with the least amount of effort. See Section 1.4 for all the details on Permissions.

1.2.6 "Download" and "Save" methods

Published content (workbooks and datasources) and thumbnails can all be queried, but they come down in formats that need to be saved in most cases. For this reason, their methods are named as following:

TableauServerRest.workbooks.save_workbook_preview_image(wb_name_or_luid, filename)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.save_workbook_view_preview_image_by_luid(wb_name_or_luid, view_name_or_luid, filename)

Do not include file extension. Without filename, only returns the response TableauServerRest.datasources.download_datasource(ds_name_or_luid, filename_no_extension, proj_name_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.workbooks.download_workbook(wb_name_or_luid, filename_no_extension, proj_name_or_luid=None)

1.3 Administrative Actions (adding, removing, and syncing)

1.3.1 Adding Users

There are two separate actions in the Tableau REST API to add a new user. First, the user is created, and then additional details are set using an update command. tableau_rest_api implements these two together as:

TableauServerRest.users.add_user(username, fullname, site_role='Unlicensed', password=None, email=None, update_if_exists=False)

If you just want to do the basic add, without the update, then do:

TableauServerRest.users.add_user_by_username(username, site_role='Unlicensed', update_if_exists=False)

The update_if_exists flag allows for the role to be changed even if the user already exists when set to True.

1.3.2 Create Methods for other content types

The other methods for adding content start with "create_". Each of these will return the LUID of the newly created content

TableauServerRest.projects.create_project(project_name, project_desc=None, locked_permissions=False)

TableauServerRest.sites.create_site(new_site_name, new_content_url, options_dict= {'optionName' : 'value', 'optionName2': 'value2}))

TableauServerRest.groups.create_group(self, group_name)

TableauServerRest.groups.create_group_from_ad_group(self, ad_group_name, ad_domain_name, default_site_role='Unlicensed', sync_as_background=True)

Ex. new_luid = t.groups.create_group('Awesome People')

1.3.2.1 direct_xml_request arguments on ADD / CREATE methods for duplicating site information

Some, if not all, of the create / add methods implement an optional direct_xml_request parameter, which allows you to submit your own ET.Element, starting with the tsRequest tag. When there is any value sent as an argument for this parameter, that method will ignore any values from the other arguments and just submit the Element you send in.

The original purpose of this parameter is for allowing easy duplication of content from one site/server to another in conjunction with

build_request_from_response(request: ET.Element)

This method automatically converts any single Tableau REST API XML tsResponse object into a tsRequest -- in particular, it removes any IDs, so that the tsRequest can be submitted to create a new element with the new settings.

t = TableauServerRest("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="site1")
t.signin()

t2 = TableauServerRest("http://127.0.0.1", "admin", "adminsp@ssw0rd", site_content_url="duplicate_site1")
t2.signin()

o_groups = t.groups.query_groups()
for group in groups:
    new_group_request = t.build_request_from_response(group)
    new_group_luid = t2.groups.create_group(direct_xml_request=new_group_request)

1.3.3 Adding users to a Group

Once users have been created, they can be added into a group via the following method, which can take either a single string or a list/tuple set. Anywhere you see the "or_luid_s" pattern in a parameter, it means you can pass a string or a list of strings to make the action happen to all of those in the list.

TableauServerRest.groups.add_users_to_group(username_or_luid_s, group_name_or_luid)

Ex.

usernames_to_add = ["user1@example.com", "user2@example.com", "user3@example.com"]
users_luids = []
for username in usernames_to_add:
    new_luid = t.users.add_user_by_username(username, site_role="Interactor")
    users_luids.append(new_luid)

new_group_luid = t.groups.create_group("Awesome People")
t.groups.add_users_to_group_by_luid(users_luids, new_group_luid)

1.3.4 Update Methods

If you want to make a change to an existing piece of content on the server, there are methods that start with "update_". Many of these use optional keyword arguments, so that you only need to specify what yo'd like to change.

Here's an example for updating a datasource: TableauServerRest.datasources.update_datasource(name_or_luid, new_datasource_name=None, new_project_luid=None, new_owner_luid=None, proj_name_or_luid=False)

Note that if you want to change the actual content of a workbook or datasource, that requires a Publish action with Overwrite set to True

1.3.5 Deleting / Removing Content

Methods with "remove_" are used for user membership, where the user still exists on the server at the end.

TableauServerRest.groups.remove_users_from_site(username_or_luid_s))

TableauServerRest.groups.remove_users_from_group(username_or_luid_s, group_name_or_luid)

Methods that start with "delete_" truly delete the content

TableauServerRest.workbooks.delete_workbooks(wb_name_or_luid_s)

TableauServerRest.projects.delete_projects(project_name_or_luid_s) etc.

1.3.6 Deleting a Site

The method for deleting a site requires that you first be signed into that site

TableauServerRest.sites.delete_current_site()

If you are testing a script that creates a new site, you might use the following pattern to delete the existing version before rebuilding it:

d = TableauServerRest(server, username, password, site_content_url='default')
d.signin()
d.enable_logging(logger)

new_site_content_url = "my_site_name"
try:
    print("Attempting to create site {}".format(new_site_content_url))
    d.sites.create_site(new_site_content_url, new_site_content_url)
except AlreadyExistsException:
    print("Site replica already exists, deleting bad replica")
    t = TableauServerRest(server, username, password, site_content_url=new_site_content_url)
    t.enable_logging(logger)
    t.signin()
    t.sites.delete_current_site()

d.signin()
d.sites.create_site(new_site_content_url, new_site_content_url)

print("Logging into {} site".format(new_site_content_url))
t = TableauServerRest(server, username, password, site_content_url=new_site_content_url)
t.signin()
t.enable_logging(logger)

1.3.7 Schedules (Extract and Subscriptions)

You can add or delete schedules for extracts and subscriptions. While there is a generic TableauRestApiConnection.create_schedule() method , the unique aspects of each type schedule make it better to use the helper factory methods that specifically create the type of schedule you want:

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_daily_extract_schedule(name, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_daily_subscription_schedule(name, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_weekly_extract_schedule(name, weekday_s, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_weekly_subscription_schedule(name, weekday_s, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_monthly_extract_schedule(name, day_of_month, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_monthly_subscription_schedule(name, day_of_month, start_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_hourly_extract_schedule(name, interval_hours_or_minutes, interval, start_time, end_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

TableauServerRest.schedules.create_hourly_subscription_schedule(name, interval_hours_or_minutes, interval, start_time, end_time, priority=1, parallel_or_serial='Parallel')

The format for start_time and end_time is 'HH:MM:SS' like '13:15:30'. Interval can actually take a list, because Weekly schedules can run on multiple days. Priority is an integer between 1 and 100

You can delete an existing schedule with:

TableauServerRest.schedules.delete_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid)

You can update an existing schedule with:

TableauServerRest.schedules.update_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid, new_name=None, frequency=None, parallel_or_serial=None, priority=None, start_time=None, end_time=None, interval_value_s=None, interval_hours_minutes=None)

One use case for updating schedules is to enable or disable the schedule. There are two methods for doing just this action:

TableauServerRest.schedules.disable_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.schedules.enable_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid)

If you want to create a new schedule and then disable it, combine the two commands:

sched_luid = t.schedules.create_daily_extract_schedule('Afternoon Delight', start_time='13:00:00')
t.disable_schedule(sched_luid)

Ex.

try:
    t.log('Creating a daily extract schedule')
    t.create_daily_extract_schedule('Afternoon Delight', start_time='13:00:00')

    t.log('Creating a monthly subscription schedule')
    new_monthly_luid = t.create_monthly_subscription_schedule('First of the Month', '1',
                                                                   start_time='03:00:00', parallel_or_serial='Serial')
    t.log('Creating a monthly extract schedule')
    t.create_monthly_extract_schedule('Last Day of Month', 'LastDay', start_time='03:00:00', priority=25)
    t.log('Creating a monthly extract schedule')
    weekly_luid = t.create_weekly_subscription_schedule('Mon Wed Fri', ['Monday', 'Wednesday', 'Friday'],
                                               start_time='05:00:00')
    time.sleep(4)
    t.log('Deleting monthly subscription schedule LUID {}'.format(new_monthly_luid))
    t.delete_schedule(new_monthly_luid)

    t.log('Updating schedule with LUID {}'.format(weekly_luid))
    t.update_schedule(weekly_luid, new_name='Wed Fri', interval_value_s=['Wednesday', 'Friday'])

except AlreadyExistsException as e:
    t.log('Skipping the add since it already exists')

When looking for Schedules to use for Subscriptions and Extracts, there are the following querying methods

TableauRestApiConnection.query_extract_schedules()
TableauRestApiConnection.query_subscription_schedules()
TableauRestApiConnection.query_schedules()
TableauRestApiConnection.query_schedule_luid(schedule_name)
TableauRestApiConnection.query_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid)

These methods all live in the TableauServerRest.schedules

sub-object of TableauServerRest

Not much reason to ever use the plain query_schedules() and have them mixed together. Schedules have unique names so there is no need to specify extract or subscription when asking individually.

1.3.8 Subscriptions

You can subscribe a user to a view or a workbook on a given subscription schedule. This allows for mass actions such as subscribing everyone in a group to a given view or workbook, or removing subscriptions to old content and shifting them to new content.

TableauServerRest.subscriptions.create_subscription_to_workbook(subscription_subject, wb_name_or_luid, schedule_name_or_luid, username_or_luid, project_name_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.subscriptions.create_subscription_to_view(subscription_subject, view_name_or_luid, schedule_name_or_luid, username_or_luid, wb_name_or_luid=None, project_name_or_luid=None)

There is a generic TableauServerRest.subscriptions.create_subscription() but there the helper functions handle anything it can.

You can update a subscription with

TableauServerRest.subscriptions.update_subscription(subscription_luid, subject=None, schedule_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.subscriptions.delete_subscriptions(subscription_luid_s)

You'll note that the update and delete subscriptions methods only take LUIDs, unlike most other methods in tableau_tools. This is because Subscriptions do not have a reasonably unique identifier -- to find the LUID, you would use a combination of things to filter on.

This brings us to how to find subscriptions to do things to via query_subscriptions

TableauServerRest.subscriptions.query_subscriptions(username_or_luid=None, schedule_name_or_luid=None, subscription_subject=None,view_or_workbook=None, content_name_or_luid=None, project_name_or_luid=None, wb_name_or_luid=None)

You don't have to pass anything to query_subscriptions(), and you'll get all of them in the system. However, if you want to filter down to a subset, you can pass any of the parameters, and the filters will be applied successively.

1.4 Permissions

The tableau_rest_api library handles permissions via the Permissions and PublishedContent (Project, Workbook, Datasource) classes, encapsulating all of the necessary logic to make changes to permissions both easy and efficient.

Permissions are by far the most complex issue in the Tableau REST API. Every content object (Project, Workbook or Datasource) can have permissions (known as "capabilities" in the REST API) set for each member object (Group or User). This is represented in the REST API by granteeCapabilities XML, which is a relatively complex XML object. Capabilities can also be "unspecified", and if this is the case, they simply are missing from the granteeCapabilities XML.

Additionally, there is no "update" functionality for permissions capabilities -- if you want to submit changes, you must first delete out those permissions. Thus any "update" must involve determining the current state of the permissions on an object and removing those permissions before assigning the new permissions.

The most efficient algorithm for sending an update is thus:

a. For the given user or group to be updated, see if there are any existing permissions for that user or group
b. If the existing permissions match exactly, do not make any changes (Otherwise, yo'd have to delete out every permission only to reset it exactly as it was before)
c. If the permissions do not match exactly, delete all of the existing permissions for that user or group (and only those that are set, therefore saving wasted deletion calls)
d. Set the new permissions for that user or group

tableau_rest_api handles this through two concepts -- the Permissions object that represents the permissions / capabilities, and the PublishedContent classes, which represent the objects on the server that have permissions.

1.4.1 PublishedContent Classes (Project, Workbook, Datasource, View, Database, Table)

Because of the complexity of Permissions, there are classes that represent the state of published content to a server; they all descend from the PublishedContent class, but there is no reason to ever access PublishedContent directly. Each of these require passing in an active and signed-in TableauRestApiConnection or TableauServerRest object so that they can perform actions against the Tableau Server.

Project obviously represents a project on the server. But a Project also contains a child Workbook and Datasource object that represent the Default Permissions that can be set for that project, and starting with Project33 contains a Flow object as well to represent its defaults.

Starting in API 3.2 (2018.3+), there is a View object which represents published Views that were not published as Tabs. Since views have the same permissions as workbooks, use the WorkbookPermissions objects just like with the Workbook object.

The TableauServerRest classes has factory methods to get you the right object type for the right version of the API. Use these instead of constructing the objects directly.

TableauServerRest.get_published_project_object(project_name_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.get_published_datasource_object(datasource_name_or_luid, project_name_or_luid)

TableauServerRest.get_published_workbook_object(workbook_name_or_luid, project_name_or_luid)

For Projects, since the standard query_project() method returns the Project object, so you can just use that method rather than the longer factory method above.

Projects have additional commands that the other classes do not:

Project.lock_permissions() -> Project

Project.unlock_permission() -> Project

Project.are_permissions_locked()

If you are locking or unlocking permissions, you should replace the project object you used with the response that comes back:

proj = t.projects.query_project('My Project')
proj = proj.lock_permissions()  # You want to updated object returned here to use from here on out
... 

You access the default permissions objects with the following, which reference the objects of the correct type that have already been built within the Project object:

Project.workbook_defaults

Project.datasource_defaults

Project33 expands the project definition to include a .flow_defaults sub-object for setting Default Permissions for Flows.

Project33.flow_defaults

1.4.2 Permissions Classes

Any time you want to set or change permissions, you must use one of the Permissions classes to represent that set of permissions/capabilities available. You do not need to construct them directly, as below. Instead please use the factory method mentioned directly after:

WorkbookPermissions(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

DatasourcePermissions(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

ProjectPermissions(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

FlowPermission33(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

DatabasePermissions35(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

TablePermission35(group_or_user, group_or_user_luid)

Any PublishedContent object (Project, Workbook, etc.) will return the correct Permissions object type for itself with the following method. The optional role parameter sets the permissions to match one of the named roles in Tableau Server. It is a shortcut to the set_capabilities_to_match_role method.

get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid: Optional[str] = None, username_or_luid: Optional[str] = None, role: Optional[str] = None)

So if you want to set the default permissions for workbooks in a project, you can do

proj_obj = t.projects.query_project('My Project')
wb_perms_1 = proj_obj.workbook_defaults.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='My Favorite Group')
wb_perms_1.set_all_to_allow()
wb_perms_1.set_capability_to_deny('Download Full Data')
proj_obj.workbook_defaults.set_permissions(permissions=[wb_perms, ])

1.4.2 Setting Capabilities

The Permissions classes have methods for setting capabilities individually, or matching the selectable "roles" in the Tableau Server UI.

There are actually three states: "Allow", "Deny" and "Unspecified". While there is an underlying method for setting them: Permissions.set_capability(capability_name, mode)

You are better off using the specific methods:

Permissions.set_capability_to_allow(capability_name) Permissions.set_capability_to_deny(capability_name) Permissions.set_capability_to_unspecified(capability_name)

There are two quick methods for all to allow or all to deny:

Permissions.set_all_to_deny() Permissions.set_all_to_allow()

There is also a method to match the roles from the Tableau Server UI. It is aware of both the api version and the content_type, and will give you an error if you choose a role that is not available for that content type ("Project Leader" on a Workbook, for example)

Permissions.set_capabilities_to_match_role(role)

Ex.

proj = t.projects.query_project('My Project')
best_group_perms_obj = proj.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='Best Group')
best_group_perms_obj.set_capabilities_to_match_role("Publisher")
# alternatively, you can set this in the factory method
# best_group_perms_obj = proj.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='Best Group', role='Publisher')

1.4.2 Permissions Setting

All of the PublishedContent classes (Workbook, ProjectXX and Datasource) inherit the following method for setting permissions:

PublishedContent.set_permissions_by_permissions_obj_list(new_permissions_obj_list)

There is also a method to clear all permissions for a given object:

PublishedContent.clear_all_permissions()

Project(28, 33) has an additional optional parameter to control if the defaults should be cleared as well:

Project.clear_all_permissions(clear_defaults=True)

This method does all of the necessary checks to send the simplest set of calls to update the content object. It takes a list of Permissions objects and compares against any existing permissions to add or update as necessary.

Ex.

    proj = t.projects.query_project('My Project')
    best_group_perms_obj = proj.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='Best Group')
    best_group_perms_obj.set_capabilities_to_match_role("Publisher")
    proj.set_permissions(permissions=[best_group_perms_obj, ]) # Note creating a list for singular item

# Setting default permissions for workbook
best_group_perms_obj = proj.workbook_defaults.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='Best Group')
best_group_perms_obj.set_capabilities_to_match_role("Interactor")
proj.workbook_defaults.set_permissions(permissions=[best_group_perms_obj, ])

# Setting default permissions for data source
best_group_perms_obj = proj.datasource_defaults.get_permissions_obj(group_name_or_luid='Best Group', role='Editor')
proj.datasource_defaults.set_permissions(permissions=[best_group_perms_obj, ])

1.4.3 Reusing Permissions Objects

If you have a Permissions object that represents a set of permissions you want to reuse, you should use the two copy methods here, which create actual new Permissions objects with the appropriate changes:

PublishedContent.copy_permissions_obj_for_group(perms_obj, group_name_or_luid)

PublishedContent.copy_permissions_obj_for_user(perms_obj, username_or_luid)

Ex.

best_group_perms_obj = proj.create_datasource_permissions_object_for_group('Best Group', role='Editor')
second_best_group_perms_obj = proj.copy_permissions_obj_for_group(best_group_perms_obj, 'Second Best Group')

# Transform to user from group
my_user_perms_obj = proj.copy_permissions_obj_for_user(second_best_group_perms_obj, 'My User Name')

# Set on proj
proj.clear_all_permissions()
proj.set_permissiosn_by_permissions_obj_list([best_group_perms_obj, second_best_group_perms_obj, my_user_perms_obj])

1.4.4 Replicating Permissions from One Site to Another

-- There is an included example script "replicate_site_structure_sample.py" which shows this in action The PublishedContent class has a method called PublishedContent.convert_permissions_obj_list_from_orig_site_to_current_site(permissions_obj_list, orig_site)

orig_site is a TableauRestApiConnection class object that is a signed-in connection to the original site. This allows the method to translate the names of Groups and Users from the Originating Site to the site where the PublishedContent lives. In most cases, yo'll do this on a Project object. The method returns a list of Permissions objects, which can be put directly into set_permissions_by_permissions_obj_list

Ex.

orig_proj = o.projects.query_project(proj_name)
new_proj = n.projects.query_project(proj_name)

# Clear everything on the new one
new_proj.clear_all_permissions()

# Project Permissions
o_perms_obj_list = orig_proj.current_perms_obj_list
n_perms_obj_list = new_proj.convert_permissions_obj_list_from_orig_site_to_current_site(o_perms_obj_list, o)
new_proj.set_permissions_by_permissions_obj_list(n_perms_obj_list)

# Workbook Defaults
o_perms_obj_list = orig_proj.workbook_defaults.current_perms_obj_list
n_perms_obj_list = new_proj.workbook_defaults.convert_permissions_obj_list_from_orig_site_to_current_site(o_perms_obj_list, o)
new_proj.workbook_defaults.set_permissions_by_permissions_obj_list(n_perms_obj_list)

# Project Defaults
o_perms_obj_list = orig_proj.datasource_defaults.current_perms_obj_list
n_perms_obj_list = new_proj.datasource_defaults.convert_permissions_obj_list_from_orig_site_to_current_site(o_perms_obj_list, o)
new_proj.datasource_defaults.set_permissions_by_permissions_obj_list(n_perms_obj_list)

1.5 Publishing Content

The Tableau REST API can publish both data sources and workbooks, either as TWB / TDS files or TWBX or TDSX files. It actually has two different methods of publishing; one as a single upload, and the other which chunks the upload. tableau_rest_api encapsulates all this into two methods that detect the right calls to make. The default threshold is 20 MB for a file before it switches to chunking. This is set by the "single_upload_limit" variable.

If a workbook references a published data source, that data source must be published first. Additionally, unlike Tableau Desktop, the REST API will not find linked files and upload them. A workbook with a "live connection" to an Excel file, for example, must be saved as a TWBX rather than a TWB for an upload to work correctly. The error messages if you do not follow this order are not very clear.

1.5.1 Publishing a Workbook or Datasource

The publish methods must upload directly from disk. If you are manipulating a workbook or datasource using the TableauFile / TableauDocument classes, please save the file prior to publishing. Also note that you specify a Project object rather than the LUID. Publishing methods live under their respective sub-objects in TableauServeRest: .workbooks, .datasources or .flows

TableauServerRest.workbooks.publish_workbook(workbook_filename, workbook_name, project_obj, overwrite=False, connection_username=None, connection_password=None, save_credentials=True, show_tabs=True, check_published_ds=True)

TableauServerRest.datasources.publish_datasource(ds_filename, ds_name, project_obj, overwrite=False, connection_username=None, connection_password=None, save_credentials=True)

The check_published_ds argument for publish_workbook causes the tableau_document sub-module to be used to open up and look to see if there are any published data sources in the workbook. If there are, it changes the Site Content URL property to match the site that the workbook is being published to. The only reason to choose False for the argument is if you know you are not using any Published Data Sources or you using the more thorough process described below (where those changes would already be made)

1.5.1.1 Workbooks Connected to Published Data Sources

Tableau Server only requires unique names for Workbooks and Data Sources within a Project, rather than within the Site. This means you can have multiple workbooks or data sources with the same “visible name”. Internally, Tableau Server generates a unique “contentUrl” property using a pattern which removes spaces and other characters, and appends numbers if the pattern would result in overwriting any existing contentUrl. However, there is no guarantee that you will get the same contentUrl from Site to Site, since the publish order could result in the numbering being different.

To publish a workbook connected to Published Data Sources, you need to be aware of what the Destination contentUrl property will be of any Data Source, and then substitute that value into the definition of the Published Data Source in the workbook file prior to publish (in addition to the Site Content Url, which otherwise would be handled automatically). This is done using tableau_documents, which is covered in section 2 of this README.

There's a very thorough explanation of this availabe at https://tableauandbehold.com/2018/05/17/replicating-workbooks-with-published-data-sources/.

The example code to do this process correctly is included in the template_publish_sample.py using the function replicate_workbooks_with_published_dses

Here is an example of using that function

orig_server = 'http://'
orig_username = ''
orig_password = ''
orig_site = 'default'

dest_server = ''
dest_username = ''
dest_password = ''
dest_site = 'publish_test'

o = TableauServerRest(server=orig_server, username=orig_username, password=orig_password,
                               site_content_url=orig_site)
o.signin()
o.enable_logging(logger)

d = TableauServerRest(server=dest_server, username=dest_username, password=dest_password,
                               site_content_url=dest_site)
d.signin()
d.enable_logging(logger)

wbs_to_replicate = ['Workbook Connected to Published DS', 'Connected to Second DS']
o_wb_project = 'Default'
d_wb_project = 'Default'

replicate_workbooks_with_published_dses(o, d, wbs_to_replicate, o_wb_project, d_wb_project)

1.5.2 Workbook and Datasource Revisions

If revision history is turned on for a site, allowing you to see the changes that are made to workbooks over time. Workbook and datasource revisions are identified by a number that counts up starting from 1. So if there has only ever been one publish action, there is only revision 1.

The REST API does not have a method for "promote to current". This means to restore to a particular revision you have two options: 1) Delete all revisions that come after the one you want to be the current published workbook or datasource 2) Download the revision you want to be current, and then republish it

To see the existing revisions, use

TableauServerRest.revisions.get_workbook_revisions(workbook_name_or_luid, username_or_luid=None, project_name_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.revisions.get_datasource_revisions(datasource_name_or_luid, project_name_or_luid=None)

You can remove revisions via

TableauServerRest.revisions.remove_workbook_revision(wb_name_or_luid, revision_number, project_name_or_luid=None, username_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.revisions.remove_datasource_revision(datasource_name_or_luid, revision_number, project_name_or_luid=None)

You can download any revision as a file using methods that mirror the standard download workbook and datasource methods.

TableauServerRest.revisions.download_datasource_revision(ds_name_or_luid, revision_number, filename_no_extension, proj_name_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.revisions.download_workbook_revision(wb_name_or_luid, revision_number, filename_no_extension, proj_name_or_luid=None)

1.5.3 Asynchronous Publishing (API 3.0+)

In API 3.0+ (Tableau 2018.1 and above), you can publish workbooks asychronously, so you can move on to other actions after you have pushed up the bits to the server.

The publish_workbook method has a new "async_publish" argument -- simply set it to True to publish async.

TableauServerRest.workbooks.publish_workbook(workbook_filename, workbook_name, project_obj, overwrite=False, async_publish=False, connection_username=None, connection_password=None, save_credentials=True, show_tabs=True, check_published_ds=False)

When you choose async_publish, rather than returning a workbook tag in the response, you get a job tag. From that job tag, you can pull the 'id' attribute and then use the query_job() method to find out when it has finished.

It appears when the publish completes, the progress attribute goes to 100, and the finishCode attribute turns from 1 to 0. At the time of writing (2018-04-24), there does not appear to be any indication of the LUID of the newly created workbook in the response. Always check the official documentation to determine if this is still the case.

Here's an example of an async publish, then polling every second to see if it has finished:

proj_obj = t.projects.query_project('Default')
job_id = t.workbooks.publish_workbook('A Big Workbook.twbx', 'Big Published Workbook & Stuff', proj_obj, overwrite=True, async_publish=True)
print('Published async using job {}'.format(job_id))

progress = 0
while progress < 100:
    job_obj = t.jobs.query_job(job_id)
    job = job_obj.findall('.//t:job', t.ns_map)
    # When updating our while loop variable, need to cast progress attribute to int
    progress = int(job[0].get('progress'))
    print('Progress is {}'.format(progress))
    time.sleep(1)
print('Finished publishing')

1.6 Refreshing Extracts

1.6.1 Running an Extract Refresh Schedule

The TableauRestApiConnection class, representing the API for Tableau 10.3 and above, includes methods for triggering extract refreshes via the REST API.

TableauServerRest.extracts.run_all_extract_refreshes_for_schedule(schedule_name_or_luid)

runs through all extract tasks related to a given schedule and sets them to run.

If you want to run one task individually, use

TableauServerRest.extracts.run_extract_refresh_for_workbook(wb_name_or_luid, proj_name_or_luid=None, username_or_luid=None)

TableauServerRest.extracts.run_extract_refresh_for_datasource(ds_name_or_luid, proj_name_or_luid=None, username_or_luid=None)

You can get all extract refresh tasks on the server using

TableauServerRest.extracts.get_extract_refresh_tasks()

although if you simply want to set all of the extract schedules to run, use

TableauServerRest.extracts.query_extract_schedules()

There is equivalent for for subscription schedules: TableauServerRest.extracts.query_subscription_schedules()

Ex.

extract_schedules = t.extracts.query_extract_schedules()
sched_dict = t.convert_xml_list_to_name_id_dict(extract_schedules)
for sched in sched_dict:
    t.extracts.run_all_extract_refreshes_for_schedule(sched_dict[sched])  # This passes the LUID
    # t.exctracts.run_all_extract_refreshes_for_schedule(sched_dict) # You can pass the name also, it just causes extra lookups

1.6.2 Running an Extract Refresh

In 10.5+, there is a method to update the extract in a published data source without specifying the Schedule Task. The run_extract_refresh_for_datasource() method in TableauServerRest automatically takes advantage of this, but it is implemented internally by calling the methods:

TableauServerRest.extracts.update_datasource_now(ds_name_or_luid, project_name_or_luid=False)

TableauServerRest.extracts.update_workbook_now(wb_name_or_luid: str, project_name_or_luid: Optional[str] = None)

Honestly the naming convention of those methods is confusing and the other method names are a lot clearer in intent

1.6.3 Putting Published Content on an Extract Schedule

You can put a workbook or datasource on an Extract Refresh Schedule using the REST API.

TableauServerRest.schedules.add_workbook_to_schedule(wb_name_or_luid, schedule_name_or_luid, proj_name_or_luid) TableauServerRest.schedules.add_datasource_to_schedule(ds_name_or_luid, schedule_name_or_luid, proj_name_or_luid)

1.7 Data Driven Alerts

You can manage Data Driven Alerts via the APIs. The methods for this functionality follows the exact naming pattern of the REST API Reference.

These methods live under TableauServerRest.alerts. There is only so much functionality available around Alerts, and you cannot programmatically create an alert based on any type of specification via the API. Please check the reference guide for exact capabilities

1.8 Tableau Prep Flows (2019.1+)

Starting in API 3.3 (2019.1+), Tableau Prep flows can be published and managed through the REST API. For Permissions on Published Flows, see Section 1.4 which describes all of the PublishedContent methods.

The methods for flows live under TableauServerRest.flows.

1.9 Favorites

Favorites live as their own items in Tableau Server. You can access the methods to set Favorites under TableauServerRest.favorites. Most of the methods to delete Favorites are plural and thus can take a list

Ex.

add_workbook_to_user_favorites(favorite_name: str, wb_name_or_luid: str, username_or_luid: str, 
                                proj_name_or_luid: Optional[str] = None) -> etree.Element
delete_views_from_user_favorites(view_name_or_luid_s: Union[List[str], str],
                                 username_or_luid: str, wb_name_or_luid: Optional[str] = None)

1.10 Metadata (2019.3+)

The Metadata methods are implemented under TableauServerRest.metata in TableauServerRest. They have not been fully tested in 5.0.0 release.

Of note, there is a method for accessing the GraphQL API. Note that you send a string (please look at the Tableau GraphQL API documentation for examples of correct queries) but it will return back on object, representing the result of Python running json.dumps() on the resulting JSON string returned by GraphQL.

graphql(graphql_query: str) -> Dict

1.11 Webhooks (2019.4+)

The Webhooks methods are implemented under TableauServerRest.webhooks in TableauServerRest. They have not been fully tested in 5.0.0 release.

2 tableau_documents: Modifying Tableau Documents (for Template Publishing)

tableau_documents implements some features that go beyond the Tableau REST API, but are extremely useful when dealing with a large number of workbooks or datasources, particularly for multi-tenented Sites. It also provides a mechanism for utilizing newly updated Hyper files generated by Extract API or Hyper API to update existing TWBX and TDSX files. These methods actually allow unsupported changes to the Tableau workbook or datasource XML. If something breaks with them, blame the author of the library and not Tableau Support, who won't help you with them.

2.0 Getting Started with tableau_documents: TableauFileOpener class

tableau_documents is a sub-package of the main tableau_tools library. It is only imported if you need it, using:

from tableau_tools.tableau_documents import *

The class you will use to handle existing classes is TableauFileOpener. This is a class full of static methods for detecting if something is a Tableau file and opening it as the correct object type, among other features. Use the .open(filename) method to get back one of the objects that represents a Tableau file. If you know the file type, you can annotate the variable for code completion. If not, don't worry, there ways to handle all files without knowing ahead of time:

from tableau_tools.tableau_documents import *
t_file: TDS = TableauFileManager.open(filename='Live PostgreSQL Connection.tds')
if isinstance(t_file, DatasourceFileInterface):
   

2.1 tableau_documents basic model

Starting in 5.0+, tableau_documents was been updated considerably with a more consistent model than in the past. There is a hierarchy of the objects, which reflects a model of "Tableau XML File on Disk" -> "Object that manipulates the XML, built from File". For Tableau's packaged file types (the ones that end in X), there is an additional layer, which is the ZIP file that contains the XML File. The TableauWorkbook and TableauDatasource objects both inherit from TableauDocument, which just defines certain methods they both share.

Datasource:

  • TDS (TableauXmlFile, DatasourceFileInterface)

    • TableauDatasource (TableauDocument)
      • [TableauConnection]
      • TableauColumns
  • TDSX (TableauPackagedFile, DatasourceFileInterface)

    • TDS (TableauXmlFile, DatasourceFileInterface)
      • TableauDatasource (TableauDocument)
        • [TableauConnection]
        • TableauColumns

Workbooks:

  • TWB (TableauXmlFile, DatasourceFileInterface)

    • TableauWorkbook (TableauDocument)
      • [TableauDatasource]
        • [TableauConnection]
        • TableauColumns
  • TWBX (TableauPackagedFile, DatasourceFileInterface)

    • TWB (TableauXmlFile, DatasourceFileInterface)
      • TableauWorkbook (TableauDocument)
        • [TableauDatasource]
          • [TableauConnection]
          • TableauColumns

Flows: (not available and tested yet)
(Flows are stored in a JSON format that shares no similarities with the other Tableau File Types)

You'll note in parentheses that some of these classes do descend from the same abstract parent classes. This means they have the same methods available, despite being different classes. In particular, DatasourceFileInterface allows you to access the datasource objects stored within any of the object types without worrying about the hierarchy of the individual object. We'll explore the effects of this in one of the next sections.

2.2 TableauXmlFile Classes (TDS, TWB, TFL)

The TableauXmlFile class represents one single existing Tableau file on disk (.tds, .twb, .tfl ). Use TableauFileOpener.open() to return the correct object for the type of file you are opening. The main function of the TableauXmlFile objects is to handle reading from and writing to disk correctly.

There is a tableau_document property to any TableauXmlFile object which gives access to the TableauWorkbook, TableauDatasource, or TableauFlow object inside. Other than the TableauParameters object of a TableauWorkbook (allowing you to set or changed Parameter definitions), you will most likely use the .datasources property rather than traversing the full object tree (since this has different depth depending on the object type).

You can save a new file (including any changes you would have made to the underlying tableau_document objects) using

TableauXmlFile.save_new_file(filename_no_extension: str, save_to_directory: Optional[str] = None)

It automatically appends the correct extension, so you don't need to include when giving the save name.

If a file is found on disk with the same name, a number will be appended to the end.

ex.

tf = TableauFileOpener('A Workbook.twb')
file_1 = tf.save_new_file('A Workbook')
file_2 = tf.save_new_file('A Workbook')
print(file_1)
# 'A Workbook (1).twb'
print(file_2)
# 'A Workbook (2).twb'

2.3 TableauPackagedFile Classes (TDSX, TWBX, TFLX)

When publishing to the REST API, the most common file type is actually a Tableau Packaged file, which is really just a ZIP file with a particular structure and a different file ending.

Within these ZIP files exists a Tableau XML file (.tds, .twb, .tfl) and any associated assets that are needed for publishing, including Extract files and static file sources like Excel or CSV files.

The TableauPackagedFile classes give you access to the TableauXmlFile object through the property:

TableauPackagedFile.tableau_xml_file

As well as have functionality for working with the static files (see next session)

There is a save_new_file method:

TableauPackagedFile.save_new_file(new_filename_no_extension: str)

which works similiarly to the save_new_file function of TableauXmlFile, in that it will append a number rather than overwrite an existing file. It will actually call the underlying TableauXmlFile object, which means any changes you have made will be saved into the file placed into the final packaged file.

2.3.1 Replacing Static Data Files

TableauPackagedFile maintains an internal dictionary of files to replace during the save_new_file() process. This is useful for swapping in Hyper files or different CSV or Excel files (and potentially anything else stored in an packaged workbook).

TableauPackagedFile.get_filenames_in_package() -> List[str]

will tell you the names of any file that lives within the ZIP directory structure. Given that name, you can set it for replacement with another file from disk using

TableauPackagedFile.set_file_for_replacement(self, filename_in_package: str, replacement_filname_on_disk: str)

When you call save_new_file(), the replacement file from disk will be written into the new packaged file on disk with the original name as it was in the packaged. If there was no original file by that name, it will be placed into the packaged file (not sure the use for this, but it is possible)

2.4 TableauDatasource Class and the DatasourceFileInterface

The TableauDatasource class is represents the XML contained within a TDS or an embedded datasource within a TWB file.

Any class which implements the DatasourceFileInterface class (TWB, TWBX, TDS, TDSX) make a list of all included TableauDatasource objects available via the datasources property.

You can also traverse the various object types to get to the inner TableauDatasources, but this is usually unnecessary.

You would only initialize a TableauDatasource object directly when creating a datasource from scratch in which case you initialize it like:

TableauDatasource(datasource_xml=None, logger_obj=None, ds_version=None)

ex.

logger = Logger('ds_log.txt')
new_ds = TableauDatasource(logger_obj=logger)

2.4.1 Iterating through .datasources

The main pattern for accessing datasources from any of the objects is

DatasourceFileInterface.datasources

This abstraction allows you to iterate through all different file types without worrying about what they are and use the same code to make changes to the datasource properties.

Ex.

a_logger = Logger('my_log.log')
list_o_files = ['A Twb.twb', 'A TDSX.tdsx', 'An TWBX.twbx', 'This here TDS.tds']
for file in list_o_files:
    t_file = TableauFileManager.open(filename=file, logger_obj=a_logger)
    # This just makes sure you can do these actions. You could also catch and ignore exceptions I guess
    if isinstance(t_file, DatasourceFileInterface):
        datasources = t_file.datasources
        for ds in datasources:
            # do some stuff to the data source
            for conn in ds.connections:
                # Do some stuff to the connection

2.4.2 Published Datasources in a Workbook

Datasources in a workbook come in two types: Embedded and Published. An embedded datasource looks just like a standard TDS file, except that there can be multiple in a workbook. Published Datasources have an additional tag called <repository-location> which tells the information about the Site and the published Datasource name

To see if a datasource is published, use the following property to check: TableauDatasource.is_published -> bool

If is_published is True, you can get or set the Site of the published DS. This was necessary in Tableau 9.2 and 9.3 to publish to different sites, and it still might be best practice, so that there is no information about other sites passed in (see notes)

ex.

twb = TableauFileManager('My TWB.twb')
dses = twb.datasources
for ds in dses:
    if ds.is_published is True:
        print(ds.published_ds_site)
        # Change the ds_site
        ds.published_ds_site = 'new_site'  # Remember to use content_url rather than the pretty site name

2.4.3 TableauConnection Class: Most of the stuff you want to change

Since Tableau version 10, a single datasource can have any number of federated connections.

The TableauConnection class represents the connection to the datasource, whether it is a database, a text file. It should be created automatically for you through the TableauDatasource object.

You can access and set all of the relevant properties for a connection, using the following properties

TableauConnection.server

TableauConnection.dbname

TableauConnection.schema # equivalent to dbname. Actual XML does vary -- Oracle has schema attribute while others have dbname. Either method will do the right thing

TableauConnection.port

TableauConnection.connection_type

TableauConnection.sslmode

TableauConnection.authentication

If you are changing the dbname/schema on certain datasource types (Oracle and Teradata for sure, but possibly others), Tableau saves a reference to the database/schema name in the table name identifier as well. This attribute is actually stored in the relations tags in the datasource object directly (above the level of the connection), so yo'll want to also call the following method:

TableauDatasource.update_tables_with_new_database_or_schema(original_db_or_schema, new_db_or_schema)

When you set using these properties, the connection XML will be changed when the save method is called on the TableauDatasource object.

ex.

twb = TableauFile('My TWB.twb')
dses = twb.tableau_document.datasources
for ds in dses:
    if ds.published is not True:  # See next section on why you should check for published datasources
        ds.update_tables_with_new_database_or_schema('test_db', 'production_db')  # For systems where db/schema is referenced in the table identifier
        for conn in ds.connections:
            if conn.dbname == 'test_db':
                conn.dbname = 'production_db'
                conn.port = '5128'

                
twb.save_new_file('Modified Workbook')

2.4.4 TableauColumns Class

A TableauDatasource will have a set of column tags, which define the visible aliases that the end user sees and how those map to the actual columns in the overall datasource. Calculations are also defined as a column, with an additional calculation tag within. These tags to do not have any sort of columns tag that contains them; they are simply appended near the end of the datasources node, after all the connections node section.

The TableauColumns class encapsulates the column tags as if they were contained in a collection. The TableauDatasource object automatically creates a TableauColumns object at instantiation, which can be accessed through the TableauDatasource.columns property.

Columns can have an alias, which is conveniently represented by the caption attribute. They also have a name attribute which maps to the actual name of the column in the datasource itself. For this reason, the methods that deal with "Column Names" tend to search through both the name and the caption attributes.

The primary use case for adjusting column tags is to change the aliases for translation. To achieve this, there is a method designed to take in a dictionary of names to search and replace:

TableauColumns.translate_captions(translation_dict)

The dictionary should be a simple mapping of the caption from the template to the caption you want in the final translated version. Some customers have tokenized the captions to make it obvious which is the template:

english_dict = { '{token1}': 'category', '{token2}': 'sub-category'}
german_dict = { '{token1}': 'Kategorie', '{token2}': 'Unterkategorie'}
tab_file = TableauFileManager('template_file.tds')
dses = tab_file.datasources 
for ds in dses:
    ds.columns.translate_captions(english_dict)
new_eng_filename = tab_file.save_new_file('English Version')
# Reload template again
tab_file = TableauFileManager('template_file.tds')
dses = tab_file.datasources 
for ds in dses:
    ds.columns.translate_captions(german_dict)
new_ger_filename = tab_file.save_new_file('German Version')

2.4.5 Modifying Table JOIN Structure in a Datasource

The way that Tableau stores the relationships between the various tables, stored procedures, and custom SQL definitions is fairly convoluted. It is explained in some detail here https://tableauandbehold.com/2016/06/29/defining-a-tableau-data-source-programmatically/ .

The long and short of it is that the first / left-most table you see in the Data Connections pane in Tableau Desktop is the "main table" which other relations connect to. At the current time , tableau_tools can consistently identify and modify this "main table", which suffices for the vast majority of data source swapping use cases.

There is a TableRelations (note not TableauRelations) object within each TableauDatasource object, representing the table names and their relationships, accesible through the .tables property. Any methods for modifying will go through TableauDatasource.tables

You can access the main table relationship using

TableauDatasource.tables.main_table

To see if the datasource is connected to a Stored Procedure, check

TableauDatasource.is_stored_procedure: bool

like:

tab_file = TableauFileManager('template_file.tds')
    dses = tab_file.datasources 
    for ds in dses:
        if ds.is_stored_procedure:
            # do stored proc things

You can also determine the type of the main table, using:

TableauDatasource.main_table_type

which should return either 'table', 'stored-proc' or 'custom-sql'

2.5.5.1 Database Table Relations

If the type is 'table', then unsurprisingly this relation represents a real table or view in the database. The actual table name in the database is stored in a 'table' attribute, with brackets around the name (regardless of the database type).

Access and set via property: TableauDatasource.tables.main_table_name

Ex.

for ds in dses:
    if ds.main_table_type == 'table':
        if ds.tables.main_table_name == '[Test Table]':
            ds.tables.main_table_name = '[Real Data]'
2.4.5.2 Custom SQL Relations

Custom SQL relations are stored with a type of 'text' (don't ask me, I didn't come up with it). The text of the query is stored as the actual text value of the relation tag in the XML, which is also unusual for the Tableau XML files.

To retrieve the Custom SQL itself, use the property to get or set:

TableauDatasource.tables.main_custom_sql

Ex.

for ds in dses:
    if ds.is_custom_sql:
        ds.tables.main_custom_sql = 'SELECT * FROM my_cool_table'
2.4.5.3 Stored Procedure Relations

Stored Procedures are thankfully referred to as 'stored-proc' types in the XML, so they are easy to find. Stored Procedures differ from the other relation types by having parameters for the input values of the Stored Procedure. They also can only connect to that one Stored Procedure (no JOINing of other tables or Custom SQL). This means that a Stored Procedure Data Source only has one relation, the main_table_relation.

There are actually two ways to set Stored Procedure Parameters in Tableau -- either with Direct Value or linking them to a Tableau Parameter. Currently, tableau_tools allows you to set Direct Values only.

To see the current value of a Stored Procedure Parameter, use (remember to search for the exact parameter name. If SQL Server or Sybase, include the @ at the beginning): TableauDatasource.tables.get_stored_proc_parameter_value_by_name(parameter_name)

To set the value: TableauDatasource.tables.set_stored_proc_parameter_value_by_name(parameter_name, parameter_value)

For time or datetime values, it is best to pass in a datetime.date or datetime.datetime variable, but you can also pass in unicode text in the exact format that Tableau's XML uses:

datetime: '#YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS#' date: '#YYYY-MM-DD#'

Ex.

for ds in dses:
    if ds.is_stored_proc:
        ds.tables.set_stored_proc_parameter_value_by_name('@StartDate', datetime.date(2018, 1, 1))
        ds.tables.set_stored_proc_parameter_value_by_name('@EndDate', "#2019-01-01#")

***NOTE: From this point on, things become increasingly experimental and less supported. However, I can assure you that many Tableau customers do these very things, and we are constantly working to improve the functionality for making datasources dynamically.

2.4.6 Adding Data Source Filters to an Existing Data Source

There are many situations where programmatically setting the values in a Data Source filter can be useful -- particularly if you are publishing data sources to different sites which are filtered per customer, but actually all connect to a common data warehouse table. Even with Row Level Security in place, it's a nice extra security layer to have a Data Source filter that insures the customer will only ever see their data, no matter what.

The TableauDatasource class has methods for adding the three different types of data sources.

TableauDatasource.add_dimension_datasource_filter(column_name, values, include_or_exclude='include', custom_value_list=False)

TableauDatasource.add_continuous_datasource_filter(column_name, min_value=None, max_value=None, date=False)

TableauDatasource.add_relative_date_datasource_filter(column_name, period_type, number_of_periods=None, previous_next_current='previous', to_date=False)

One thing to consider is that column_name needs to be the True Database Column name, not the fancy "alias" that is visible in Tableau Desktop. You can see what this field name is in Desktop by right clicking on a field and choosing "Describe" - the "Remote Column Name" will tell you the actual name. You do not need to pass in the square brackets [] around the column_name, this will be done automatically for you.

Values takes a Python list of values, so to send a single value us the ['value', ] syntax

Here is an examples of setting many dimension filters:

existing_tableau_file = TableauFile('Desktop DS.tds')
doc = existing_tableau_file.tableau_document
# This syntax gets you correct type hinting
dses = doc.datasources  #type: list[TableauDatasource]
ds = dses[0]
ds.add_dimension_datasource_filter(column_name="call_category",
                                                  values=["Account Status", "Make Payment"])
ds.add_dimension_datasource_filter(column_name="customer_name", values=["Customer A", ])
ds.add_dimension_datasource_filter(column_name="state", values=["Hawaii", "Alaska"], include_or_exclude='exclude')
mod_filename = existing_tableau_file.save_new_file('Modified from Desktop')

If you add filters to an extract, there functions that work similarly the Data Source Filter functions. These filters are obeyed when the Extract is generated (or refreshed), as opposed to afterwards, so they can help with limited down data sizes. Note: at the current time, multi-table extracts cannot have filters applied, so you must limit them down using Custom SQL or a database view.

TableauDatasource.add_dimension_extract_filter(column_name, values, include_or_exclude='include', custom_value_list=False)

TableauDatasource.add_continuous_extract_filter(column_name, min_value=None, max_value=None, date=False)

TableauDatasource.add_relative_date_extract_filter(column_name, period_type, number_of_periods=None, previous_next_current='previous', to_date=False)

2.4.7 Defining Calculated Fields Programmatically

For certain filters, you made need to define a calculation in the data source itself, that the filter can reference. This is particularly useful for row level security type filters. You'll note that there are a lot of particulars to declare with a given calculation. If you are wondering what values you might need, it might be advised to create the calculation in Tableau Desktop, then save the TDS file and open it in a text editor to take a look.

TableauDatasource.add_calculation(calculation, calculation_name, dimension_or_measure, discrete_or_continuous, datatype)

The add_calculation method returns the internally defined name for the calculation, which is necessary if you want to define a Data Source filter against it. This is particularly useful for creating Row Level Security calculations programmatically.

The following is an example:

# Add a calculation (this one does row level security
calc_id = ds.add_calculation('IIF([salesperson_user_id]=USERNAME(),1,0) ', 'Row Level Security', 'dimension', 'discrete', 'integer')

# Create a data source filter that references the calculation
ds.add_dimension_datasource_filter(calc_id, [1, ], custom_value_list=True)

2.5 TableauWorkbook class

2.5.1 Creating and Modifying Parameters

Parameters are actually stored in the TWB file as a special type of data source. They don't behave at all like other data sources, so they are modeled differently. If detected, the TableauParameters class will be created by the TableauWorkbook object during instantiation, and stored as the property:

TableauWorkbook.parameters

If a workbook does not have any parameters, you can add a TableauParameters object using

TableauWorkbook.add_parameters_to_workbook()

which returns the new TableauParameters object (equivalent to TableauWorkbook.parameters), or will simply return the existing TableauParameters object if it already existed.

The parameters themselves are represented via TableauParameter objects. Because they have a specific naming convention that depends on the overall TableauParameters object, if you want to create a new parameter, use the factory method:

TableauParameters.create_parameter(name=None, datatype=None, current_value=None) # Returns a TableauParameter object

Yo'll need to explicitly add the newly create parameter object back using:

TableauParameters.add_parameter(parameter) # parameter is a TableauParameter object

Parameters have an numbering scheme, which is why you should create and add them through the TableauParameters factory methods rather than directly

You can also delete an existing Parameter by its name/alias:

TableauParameters.delete_parameter_by_name(parameter_name)

If you want to modify an existing parameter, use the following method:

TableauParameters.get_parameter_by_name(parameter_name) # parameter_name is the name visible to the end user, from the caption attribute.

If you want to change the name of a parameter, you should delete the existing parameter and then add a new one with the new name. The TableauParameter class tracks the parameters via their caption names, and while you can directly change the name of a parameter using the TableauParameter class, it will not overwrite the previous one with the different name.

Ex.

t_file = TableauFile('Workbook with Parameters.twb', logger)
    if t_file.tableau_document.document_type == 'workbook':
        parameters = t_file.tableau_document.parameters  # type: TableauParameters
        p1 = parameters.get_parameter_by_name('Parameter 1')
        print(p1.current_value)
        p1.current_value = 'All'
        new_param = parameters.create_new_parameter('Choose a Number', 'integer', 1111)
        parameters.add_parameter(new_param)
2.5.1.1 TableauParameter class

The actual values and settings of a Tableau Parameter are set using the TableauParameter class. When it is instantiated from an existing parameter in the XML of a TWB, all of the values are mapped to their properties, which are the only interface you should use to set or retrieve values.

When you create a TableauParameter from scratch, it comes pre-defined as an "all" type parameter, but with no datatype defined (unless you defined the datatype at creation time)

The properties you can set are:

TableauParameter.name

TableauParameter.datatype # 'string', 'integer', 'datetime', 'date', 'real', 'boolean'

TableauParameter.current_value # Use the alias i.e. the value that is visible to the end user

You can retrieve what type of allowable_values a parameter has using the property

TableauParameter.allowable_values # returns either "all", "range", or "list"

However, the actual value of allowable_values is set automatically if you set a range or a list of values.

To set the allowable values:

TableauParameter.set_allowable_values_to_all()

TableauParameter.set_allowable_values_to_range(minimum=None, maximum=None, step_size=None, period_type=None)

TableauParameter.set_allowable_values_to_list(list_value_display_as_pairs)

When using set_allowable_values_to_list(), the data structure that is expected is a list of {value : display_as} dicts.

Ex.

tab_params = wb.parameters
param = tab_params.create_parameter('Semester', 'string')
# Alternatively:
# param = tab_params.create_parameter()
# param.name = 'Semester'
# param.datatype = 'string'
allowable_values = [ { "Spring 2018" : "2018-02-01"} , { "Fall 2018" : "2018-09-01" } ]
param.set_allowable_values_to_list(allowable_values)
param.set_current_value('Spring 2018')

***NOTE: There is functionality for making a datasource from scratch however IT IS NOT FULLY TESTED IN RELEASE 5.0.0. Don't expect it to work, but there is code in there for how it could work (and it has worked in the past). Our best recommendation for now is: (1) CREATE A TEMPLATE USING TABLEAU DESKTOP (2) MODIFY THAT TEMPLATE FILE BY MAKING CHANGES OR SWAPPING IN FILES (3) PUBLISH TO SERVER, THEN USE THE REST API TO TRIGGER AN EXTRACT REFRESH IMMEDIATELY, THEN PUT ON A SCHEDULE

3 tabcmd - DEPRECATED

At this time, there is nothing that only tabcmd can do (the author writes confidently, only setting up a later downfall). There is no reason to use this wrapper class for anything possible in the REST API. However, it remains if you do find you need some last remaining functionality from tabcmd. The tabcmd.py file in the main part of tableau_tools library wraps most of the commonly used functionality to allow for easier scripting of calls (rather than doing it directly on the command line or using batch files)

3.1 Tabcmd Class

The Tabcmd class is a wrapper around the actual tabcmd program. It knows how to construct the correct commands and then sends them via the command line automatically for you. The Tabcmd class takes the following for a constructor:

Tabcmd(tabcmd_folder, tableau_server_url, username, password, site='default', repository_password=None, tabcmd_config_location=None)

You have to provide the folder\directory where tabcmd lives on the local computer (just the folder, not the location of the file), along with the username and password of the user you want to run the tabcmd commands as. This is a file that is generated after the first run of tabcmd and lives in a location similar to what you see in the example below:

Ex.

tabcmd_dir = "C:\\tabcmd\\Command Line Utility\\"
tabcmd_config_location = 'C:\\Users\\{}\\AppData\\Local\\Tableau\\Tabcmd\\'

server = 'http://127.0.0.1'
site_content_url = 'default'
username = '{}'
password = '{}'

tabcmd = Tabcmd(tabcmd_dir, server, username, password, site=site_content_url, tabcmd_config_location=tabcmd_config_location)

4. tableau_repository

The tableau_repository.py file in the main section of the tableau_tools library is a wrapper to the PostgreSQL repository in a Tableau Server. It uses the psycopg2 library, which you can install via pip if you haven't already. The library is not a requirement for all of tableau_tools because you might never need to use the TableauRepository class.

4.1 TableauRepository Class

You initiate a TableauRepository object using:

TableauRepository(tableau_server_url, repository_password, repository_username='readonly')

"repository_username" can also be "tableau" (although "readonly" has higher access) or "tblwgadmin" if you need to make updates or have access to hidden tables. It is highly suggested you only ever sign-in with tblwgadmin for the minimal amount of commands you need to send from that priviledged user, then close that connection and reconnect as readonly.

4.2 query() Method

TableauRepository.query(sql, sql_parameter_list=None)

basically wraps the execute method of psycopg2. You can put in a standard query as a string, with any parameters you would like to substitute in represented by '%s'. The optional sql_parameter_list takes the values that you want to be subsituted into the query, in the order they are listed. The query() method returns an iterable psycopg2 cursor object.

Ex.

datasource_query = """
SELECT id
FROM _datasources
WHERE name = %s
AND site_id = %s
AND project_id = %s
"""
cur = self.query(datasource_query, [datasource_name, site_id, project_id])
for row in cur:
    # Print each column of each row
    for col in row:
        print(col)

Luckily you don't have to come up with all of your own queries, TableauRepository has quite a few built-in.

4.3 Querying (and killing) Sessions

TableauRepository.query_sessions(username=None)

runs the following:

SELECT
sessions.session_id,
sessions.data,
sessions.updated_at,
sessions.user_id,
sessions.shared_wg_write,
sessions.shared_vizql_write,
system_users.name AS user_name,
users.system_user_id
FROM sessions
JOIN users ON sessions.user_id = users.id
JOIN system_users ON users.system_user_id = system_users.id
WHERE system_users.name = %s  -- Optional
ORDER BY sessions.updated_at DESC

session_id can actually be substituted for the REST API token, allowing you to kill a session:

Ex.

t = TableauRestApiConnection27(server, username, password, site_content_url)
t_rep = TableauRepository(server, repository_password=rep_pw)
sessions_for_username = t_rep.query_sessions(username='some_username')
for row in sessions_for_username:
    t.signout(row[0])

Yes, there are all sorts of other IDs besides the LUID in the repository, but you need to have gone through the work to confirm you want to do this.

5 Internal Library Structure

This section contains explanations of how everything is put together for anyone looking to work on the library or investigating errors.

tableau_tools Library Structure

tableau_tools

  • tableau_rest_api
    • methods
      • alert
      • datasource
      • extract
      • favorites
      • flow
      • group
      • metadata
      • project
      • rest_api_base
      • revision
      • schedule
      • site
      • subscription
      • user
      • webhooks
      • workbook
    • permissions
    • published_content (Project, Workbook, Datasource, Flow)
    • rest_xml_request
    • rest_json_request
    • sort
    • url_filter
  • tableau_documents
    • table_relations
    • tableau_columns
    • tableau_connection
    • tableau_datasource
    • tableau_document
    • tableau_file
    • tableau_parameters
    • tableau_workbook
    • hyper_file_generator (legacy)
  • tableau_server_rest
  • logger
  • logging_methods
  • tableau_exceptions
  • tableau_repository
  • tabcmd (legacy)
  • tableau_http (legacy)
  • tableau_emailer (legacy, unsupported)

6 tableau_rest_api module deep dive

The tableau_rest_api module is composed of a lot of different files, which combine together to expose a single TableauServerRest object to the end user.

6.0 rest_xml_request.py and rest_json_request.py

Due to historical development of the library, the actual handling of the HTTP connectivity to the Tableau Server is handled through a

6.1 tableau_server_rest.py

tableau_server_rest.py, which exposes this combined object lives in the outermost directory of the package. These classes just define the object structure, which includes the many sub-objects. The TableauServerRest object itself inherits from TableauRestApiBase, so the definition of the methods that exist directly on the TableauServerRest object really live in the tableau_rest_api/methods/rest_api_base.py file. All of the sub-objects are defined in files under the tableau_rest_api/methods/ sub-directory.

6.2 rest_api_base.py

All the REST API commands are variations of the same few HTTP actions. The value of the tableau_rest_api is in the reusable basic components that handle similar actions and process their responses in similar ways.

rest_api_base.py contains the basic implementations of all the REST API actions themselves, abstracted so they can be used by all of the other methods contained in things like the UserMethods and GroupMethods classes.

As mentioned above, TableauServerRest inherits from TableauRestApiBase, so rest_api_base.py is where to look for any of the properties and methods of the TableauServerRest object. For example, the constructor (init) method takes all of the essential elements to create a sesssion with the REST API:

def __init__(self, server: str, username: str, password: str, site_content_url: Optional[str] = "", api_version: str = "3.2"):

The constructor and the signin() methods are all documented in the earlier sections of this README, since they are used regularly by end users of the library. What we'll cover here are all the lower-level functions used as building blocks

6.2.1 build_api_url()

build_api_url(self, call: str, server_level: bool = False, url_parameters: Optional[str] = None

is the building block of every other call. It references the server URL and site LUID properties stored after the signin() call to build the start of the REST API call URL, then appends whatever you send. The server_level=True flag removes the site_luid portion of the call for things such as the sign-in call and some of the schedule settings calls. url_parameters appends a string to the end, which can be generated via build_url_parameter_string()

6.2.2 build_request_from_response()

Some ADD/UPDATE commands have a "direct_xml_request=" argument. This was originally added to facilitate replication where you request from one Site/Server, use the build_request_from_response() method to strip out any identifiers and switch the outer XML tag to tsRequest from tsResponse, then send through directly.

6.2.3 query_resource()

The base method for almost every other method that starts with "query"/"get" throughout the whole library. It takes in all the various things that might get put into a query URL string, builds out a "url_ending" string then runs it through build_api_url(). Then it runs it through the _request object as an HTTP get command, finally returning back the ElementTree XMl object.

Most of the other query methods in the library are simply built of a combination of input sanitization, lookups to get the correct LUIDs, and then a call to query_resource(), or one of the other derivatives. For example:

def query_users_in_group(self, group_name_or_luid: str) -> ET.Element:
  self.start_log_block()
  luid = self.query_group_luid(group_name_or_luid)
  users = self.query_resource("groups/{}/users".format(luid))
  self.end_log_block()
  return users

6.2.4 Specialized query base methods

The REST API provides some filters through a URL syntax (where the filter is applied in the query at the Tableau Server), while there are other endpoints that do not have filtering abilities, but you might still want to search through the results to get a specific record. Because the primary mode of tableau_rest_api is do deal with things as ElementTree XML objects, searching on responses can be done using a limited set of XPath queries.

There are a whole set of abstracted methods for taking advantage of whichever method is available for a given response:

query_elements_from_endpoint_with_filter() query_single_element_from_endpoint_with_filter() query_luid_from_name() query_luid_from_content_url() query_single_element_luid_from_endpoint_with_filter() query_single_element_luid_by_name_from_endpoint() query_single_element_from_endpoint()

6.2.5 JSON query method query_resource_json()

You can request JSON responses from the Tableau Server REST API rather than XML responses (the JSON is simply a transformation of the XML within the Tableau Server). Because a lot of filtering for specific things still requires the XPath searches, the JSON methods are mostly implemented for basic plural querying methods that have filtering available at the URL level.

All of those methods derive from:

query_resource_json()

which is identical to query_resource() except that it returns a standard Python object (which maps directly to JSON using the standard json library when you need).

Internally, it uses the _request_json_obj rather than the _request_objwhich handles XML transactions. Both objects always exist within the TableauServerRest object when it is created / sign-in happens.

6.2.6 Other HTTP verb base methods

The internal _request_obj is a RestXmlRequest object (defined in rest_xml_request.py). There is more documentation of it below in the dedicated section, but in essence it is a wrapper around Python requests library designed to help with the parsing of the Tableau REST API XML requests and responses.

The RestXmlRequest object is long-lived and maintains a requests session the whole time. Each of the HTTP verb base methods sets various properties of the RestXmlRequest prior to doing the request_from_api() method to actually cause the HTTP request to be made. Some of this architecture predates the use of the requests library, and resembles how things were done using the Python2 urllib directly (and resembles cURL type requests).

send_post_request makes a POST without any payload.

send_add_request makes a POST with an XML request, passed in as an ElementTree.Element object.

send_add_request_json makes a POST with a JSON request, passed in as a Python Dict which gets automatically converted to the correctly encoded JSON in the request

send_update_request makes a PUT with an XML request

send_delete_request makes an HTTP DELETE based on the URL string passed in

send_publish_request makes a POST request with a payload of a Tableau XML Document, or it starts a multi-part publish. Is a base component of the _publish_content method

sent_append_request makes a PUT request for the multi-part upload in a publish action. Is really used within _publish_content method

send_binary_get_request makes a POST request but does not process the response as XML or JSON, and instead returns the "raw_response", which is whatever comes out of requests Response.content property for the given content-type that was requested. Used for Tableau file, image, PDF, CSV and other requests that will either be kept as is in memory or saved to disk. _query_data_file() wraps around get_binary_get_request as the abstract underlying method for most of the image / PDF etc. calls

6.2.7 _publish_content method

_publish_content encapsulates all the possible variations necessary to publish Tableau documents to Tableau Server. The specifications for the publishing process must be followed exactly or you will get errors that are hard to work out (this is why either tableau_tools or TSC are recommended for publishing activities).

One important part of _publish_content is that it interrogates the file to be uploaded and automaticaly decides whether to do a one-action publish or to split into multi-part. There is a variable called "single_upload_limit", which is an integer representing the size in MB to make a cutoff to switch to multi-part upload. This was designed to be updated if a better value was found, but it's worked for a long time now.

initiate_file_upload and append_to_file_upload handle the XML portion of the transactions for, but are called by _publish_content are part of the process.

6.2.8 luid lookup methods

One of the major conveniences of the tableau_rest_api sub-package is that you can pass in either names or LUIDs to almost any method where there might be a valid name (a few things like Job Tasks only really have LUIDs). This is accomplished by "lookup" functions, which are all defined in the TableauRestBase class. They are implemented on the base class rather than the individual endpoint classes, because something like a Workbook method might need to look up a Project LUID, a Username LUID, and more just to generate the correct API call.

Almost every lookup method in follows a format like "query{object_type}_luid()", although there are some "query{object_type}_name()" methods for the occasional need to go the other direction.

6.3 /methods implementation files

With in the /methods sub-directory are files with the classes for the implementation of "endpoint" specific objects. This separation is for organizational purposes only - it makes autocomplete vastly easier when you can do "TableauServerRest.projects." and only get methods related to Projects. These classea do not define an object representation of the endpoint (The Tableau Server Client library works this way, where you pass Python objects representing Tableau Server objects to 'endpoints') - they are just collections of methods.

Within each file, you will see a baseline class (with no API number appeneded to the end). The baseline for version 6 of tableau_tools is API version 3.2. If there are newer methods implemented in a later version, you will see a second class named "ClassNameNN" with the API version as the "NN" portion. For example, "extract.py" has both an ExtractMethods and a ExtractMethods35 class definition, because the features for encrypted extracts were added in version 3.5 of the API.

The correct class for the given API version is defined in tableau_server_rest.py on the TableauServerRestNN object.

The benefit of this structure is that you are protected while writing code from using methods for a later version of Tableau Server than you have available. It also allows for re-implementation of existing methods with improved internal functionality when it is available on newer versions.

6.3.1 Accessing the RestApiBase methods within one of the endpoint classes

The main challenge that the structure of tableau_tools.tableau_rest_api solves is how to have the methods organized within the objects by "endpoint" (.workbooks, .groups, .users etc.), but use the same connection details, token and requests session.

The way it works is that each of the "endpoint classes" starts with

  def __init__(self, rest_api_base: TableauRestApiBase):
    self.rest = rest_api_base

When a user creates a new TableauServerRest object, all of the sub-objects are instantiated with using the TableauServerRest object itself as the rest_api_base argument of their own constructors. This gives each of these classes an internal route to reference anything defined in the TableauRestApiBase class (where connections, basic REST API actions and lookups are defined) by using self.rest

Almost every method follows some basic rules which give the distinguishing aspects of tableau_tools:

  • All arguments are fully typed using the Python 3.6 type hinting
  • Every method starts with self.rest.start_log_block() and ends with self.rest.end_log_block() prior to any return statement
  • CREATE / UPDATE methods may have a direct_xml_request argument to take an ET.Element and bypass any XML creation within the method
  • If possible, arguments should take both name or a LUID, with a naming convention like username_or_luid: str or project_name_or_luid: str. The determination of name or LUID is handled within the base methods from _lookups.py automatically

Here is an example from group.py:

    # Returns the LUID of an existing group if one already exists
def create_group(self, group_name: Optional[str] = None, direct_xml_request: Optional[ET.Element] = None) -> str:
    self.rest.start_log_block()

    if direct_xml_request is not None:
        tsr = direct_xml_request
    else:
        tsr = ET.Element("tsRequest")
        g = ET.Element("group")
        g.set("name", group_name)
        tsr.append(g)

    url = self.rest.build_api_url("groups")
    try:
        new_group = self.rest.send_add_request(url, tsr)
        self.rest.end_log_block()
        return new_group.findall('.//t:group', self.ns_map)[0].get("id")
    # If the name already exists, a HTTP 409 throws, so just find and return the existing LUID
    except RecoverableHTTPException as e:
        if e.http_code == 409:
            self.log('Group named {} already exists, finding and returning the LUID'.format(group_name))
            self.rest.end_log_block()
            return self.rest.query_group_luid(group_name)

6.4 published_content.py and permissions.py

In general, tableau_rest_api follows the rule that any method that is described in the REST API Reference is implemented with the same name and arguments as a method to be run directly. Due to the complexity and quirks around Permissions, "Published Content" that is the Workbook, Data Source, Flows on Tableau Server, as well as Projects, are represented by complex Python objects which encapsulate the methods necessary for handling the Tableau Permissions assigned on Server.

Why? The basic issue is that the Tableau Server REST API does not allow an UPDATE of a set permission/capability. If any particular permission on a published object is set to "Allow" or "Deny", you must first DELETE that permission, then set it to the value. Coupled with the fact that Permissions use three-level logic ("Unspecified", "Allow", "Deny") and that ADD actions can send full sets of permissions for multiple Principles (Groups or Users), while DELETEs must happen individually per permissions / principle, and it becomes much more efficient to run a "pre-processing" algorithm prior to attempting updates.

6.4.1 published_content.py

The base class PublishedContent is inherited by the Project, Workbook, Datasource, Flow etc. classes with the variations that are appropriate.

It contains an internal variable which references an existing TableauServerRest object so that it can directly send the necessary commands to make changes on the Tableau Server. For this reason, the PublishedContent classes are best retrieved from methods on a TableauServerRest object, rather than directly instantiated as a new object.

The PublishedContent classes also act as a Factory for Permissions objects, ensuring that all the correct settings are in place for the given published content type when requested. This happens through the:

def get_permissions_obj(self, group_name_or_luid: Optional[str] = None, username_or_luid: Optional[str] = None, role: Optional[str] = None):

a method which is overwritten by each individual class to handle their specifics.

Another convenient feature is the ability to copy a Permissions object, so that it retains the same capabilities but is assigned to another Group or User. The external copy_permissions_obj() method references a hidden internal method, which does a lookup for LUIDs and then uses the Python copy.deepcopy() method to generate an actual new object:

# Copy Permissions for users or group
def _copy_permissions_obj(self, perms_obj, user_or_group, name_or_luid):
    self.start_log_block()
    if TableauRestXml.is_luid(name_or_luid):
        luid = name_or_luid
    else:
        if user_or_group == 'group':
            luid = self.t_rest_api.query_group_luid(name_or_luid)
        elif user_or_group == 'user':
            luid = self.t_rest_api.query_user_luid(name_or_luid)
        else:
            raise InvalidOptionException('Must send group or user only')
    new_perms_obj = copy.deepcopy(perms_obj)
    new_perms_obj.luid = luid
    self.end_log_block()
    return new_perms_obj

6.4.2 Project classes

The Project classes are distinguished from the other PublishedContent classes by contained "default_permissions" sub-objects. This maps to how Projects work on Tableau Server -- there are "Project Permissions" and then a set of "Default Permissions" for the other content types. If the Project is set to "Locked Permissions", the default permissions will determine the permissions of the content contained within. In the "Unlocked" mode (still the default, although we would recommend against it in most cases), the Defaults are simply what is sugggested in the Publish dialog within Tableau Desktop, but can be changed by the publisher at publish time.

6.4. permissions.py

The classes in permissions.py are primarily data structures, while most of the actions on them come from the PublishedContent classes. Each variation has an internal dictionary with the Capabilities (Permissions) available to that particular object on the Tableau Server. Permissions classes do define getter / setter methods to set the state of individual Capabilities (Permissions are called Capabilities in the REST API) :

set_capability_to_allow(self, capability_name: str)

set_capability_to_deny(self, capability_name: str)

set_capability_to_unspecified(self, capability_name: str)

There are quick methods for setting ALL permissions to a certain state:

set_all_to_deny()

set_all_to_allow()

set_all_to_unspecified()

If you look in the definition of the first second two, you'll note that the "InheritedProjectLeader" capability is ignored for these settings, despite existing in some situations:

def set_all_to_allow(self):
    for cap in self.capabilities:
        if cap == 'InheritedProjectLeader':
            continue
        if cap != 'all':
            self.capabilities[cap] = 'Allow'

The Permissions objects also have the Role definitions from the Tableau Server UI, which allow for quick setting of standard settings.

def set_capabilities_to_match_role(self, role: str):

This method is defined on the Permissions class, but looks at the role definition dictionaries defined on each of the descendent classes such as "WorkbookPermissions"

6.5 rest_xml_request.py and rest_json_request.py

The deepest level of connection management in the library live in rest_xml_request.py and rest_json_request.py. They are separated from the basic implementation of TableauServerRest for historic reasons (to the best of my memory).

rest_json_request is an almost exact copy of rest_xml_request, but it sends with the correct headers for JSON and does basic parsing from errors that come back as JSON responses. It is not as thoroughly tested, because JSON is mostly useful as a retrieval mechanism, while there's no real disadvantage to sending UPDATES and ADDs as XML through the library.

The TableauRestApiBase class holds an internal instantiated instance of both classes:

self._request_obj: Optional[RestXmlRequest] = None
self._request_json_obj: Optional[RestJsonRequest] = None

which it builds when the signin() method is called.

The objects maintain an internal state with all the details of the previous request, until they are changed to make the next request. This allows for introspection about what happened, particularly if Exceptions are thrown when a request is sent.

The request / response process has several extra layers of abstraction over the requests library call it makes.

The Tableau REST API, in both XML and JSON forms, has pagination. The TSC library handles this by either returning a tuple with pagination information or having you use a pager object. tableau_tools always assumes you want the set from the API.

Historically, this behavior was incredibly useful prior to any server-based filter capabilities. Getting the entire XML response together as one object allows for XPath queries of everything, without trying to implement more advanced algorithms to solve the problem. Luckily, with more filters available in the API calls themselves, most potentially large responses can be filtered down prior on the server side.

In any case, tableau_tools will return you a combined XML object with all results.

6.5.1 request_from_api

The method called by TableauRestApiBase to actually make an HTTP request is

request_from_api(self, page_number: int = 1)

It always tries to get the first page of responses using the internal method __make_request() (see next section). If it determines there are more pages to get after the first request, it continues to call __make_request in a lookup to retrieve each page of results and use the copy.deepcopy() Python method to create a new XML object with all of the elements that are retrieved from the calls

It's fair to describe request_from_api as handling the process when requests come back successfully.

6.5.2 __make_request

__make_request handles the actual sending of the requests, initial inspection of the responses, and the handling of any errors. Tableau Server's REST API throws HTTP 4XX code errors for all sorts of reasons that shouldn't necessarily end your workflow, so __make_request looks for those common cases (such as "this element already exists") and throws a more benign Exception. For example

      # Everything that is not 400 can potentially be recovered from
    if status_code in [401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 409]:
        # If 'not exists' for a delete, recover and log
        if self._http_verb == 'delete':
            self.log('Delete action attempted on non-exists, keep going')
        if status_code == 409:
            self.log('HTTP 409 error, most likely an already exists')
        raise RecoverableHTTPException(status_code, error_code, detail_luid)
    # Invalid Hyper Extract publish does this
    elif status_code == 400 and self._http_verb == 'post':
        if error_code == '400011':
            raise PossibleInvalidPublishException(http_code=400, tableau_error_code='400011',
                                                  msg="400011 on a Publish of a .hyper file could caused when the Hyper file either more than one table or the single table is not named 'Extract'.")
    else:
        raise e

__make_request originally did a lot of mangling between various encodings of UTF-8 and XML namespaces, but thankfully there are no versions of Tableau Server still available that require those issues (and Python 3's change to differentiate Unicode strings from Bytes types also helped smooth things out)

7 tableau_documents module deep dive

Section 2 covers the functional model of tableau_documents, and should be the starting point for understanding its structure.

The TWB and TDS files are fully compliant XML, and Tableau will even provide an XSD for validation, but there is no existing guide to how it all works together, or the "application logic" necessary to make certain things happen.

All capabilities implemented in tableau_documents were developed through reverse engineering - creating a TWB or TDS file via Tableau Desktop, then opening the files in a text editor to see how the visual actions are represented in code. Typically, a manual change would be made, then the file saved and reopened in Tableau Desktop, to understand if that type of change could be made without causing errors. Then a programmatic version of that same XML change would be added to

7.1 tableau_file.py - TableauFileManager and the file classes

TableauFileManager is just a factory class which takes any file reference to a Tableau file type and returns back the correct object type.

Why have this at all? There's a hierarchy of how the Tableau files relate (discussed in section 2 of the guide), and so each class (TDS, TDSX, TWB, TWBX) implements some of the different interfaces that make sense. The idea is that you can write code which does not care the exact file type that is opened, and can do the same methods to any of these classes which access the Datasources, which is all tableau_documents is designed to work with.

7.1.1 Interfaces

Interface classes use the Abstract Base Class functionality of Python. They are never meant to be instantiated themselves, they merely describe structure that will be shared by other classes that inherit them.

DatasourceFileInterface : provides a 'datasources' method on each class that returns a List of TableauDatasource objects. This is the primary interface into any of the XML modification

TableauXmlFile: Provides a mechanism to convert the working model of the ElementTree XML objects in memory, with whatever state has changed, into the string XML output necessary to save to disk. Exposes a .tableau_document property

TableauPackagedFile: Provides the basics for the PackagedFile classes TWBX and TDSX which are ZIP files that contain respectively a TWB and TDS object inside them, along with other files. The save mechanism is able to repackage everything correctly and save as a new TWBX or TDSX file. This interface exposes a .tableau_xml_file property, which allows for a pass through to the .tableau_document property within.

7.1.2 _open_file_and_initialize method

Each class defines its own _open_file_and_initialize() method which handles file validation and builds out all other sub-objects from the XML it finds (however many levels deep). For example, the TWBX class opens up the zipfile, then looks for a .twb file within. It takes that file and creates a TWB object, which builds a TableauWorkbook object and all the TableauDatasource objects that live within it.

The initialize opens the XML files as text and simply looks for the section through basic text search functionality. It creates a string object in memory storing the XML that can used to create a(n) TableauDatasource object(s). TWB files in particular can be very large, so this minimizes the memory usage by only representing the datasource portions in memory. The downside is that you do not have access to all XML elements of the TWB file - hence why the library only can change datasource properties rather than anything else within a workbook.

7.1.3 save_new_file method

Each class also defines a save_new_file() method. For the TWB and TDS objects, this simply calls the get_xml_string() method of the TableauDocument classes within and then saves the result to disk with the given filename.

The TableauPackagedFile classes do much more in the save_new_file() method. The code itself is all commented well explaining each of the steps but basically the process is:

  1. Open the original packaged file on disk again using zipfile
  2. Create a new zipfile on disk (with the TDSX or TWBX ending)
  3. Parse through all the files from the original archive file
  4. If there are any replacements to be made (Hyper files mostly), those new files will be substituted into the new archive with the original names, otherwise the all files except the .twb or .tds will be saved as is from the original archive to the new archive
  5. Call the get_xml_string() method of the TDS or TWB object and then save that to the new archive instead of the original file

If the specified filename already exists, the methods automatically append an incremented number in parentheses - "My New File (1)" etc.

7.2 tableau_document.py

TableauDocument class is an Abstract Base Class i.e. just an interface, which declares that inheriting classes will define a get_xml_string() method. That method is defined differently for a TWB and a TDS - it is called by the file object when saving to disk. It takes the current state of the complex objects and merges them into a single encoded str of the XML.

7.3 tableau_workbook.py

The TableauWorkbook object is mostly just a container for a list of TableauDatasources, but it does host the .parameters property as well as the add_parameters_to_workbook() method, which builds a TableauParameters object and attaches it to the .parameters property if one does not already exist. Parameters (as described below) are actually a specialized Datasource object within the XML, but they only exist within Workbooks (in most cases -- it is possible that a Published Data Source has parameters defined, but they still would get their values from the Workbook using the published data source -- would require a lot of testing to fully understand)

7.4 tableau_parameters.py

Inside is the definition of TableauParameters, a containing class which has methods to parse and modify a set of TableauParameter objects, also defined within this file. There is an internal naming scheme to parameters which the TableauParameters object handles along with creating, adding and retrieving the TableauParameter objects.

A user calls the factory method TableauParameters.create_new_parameter() to get a TableauParameter object if they want to add an entirely new parameter to a workbook. They then use the TableauParameters.add_parameter() method to pass that TableauParameter object back (after adjusting properties and so forth).

TableauParameter is the first object covered in this README up to this point that represents an encapsulated XML object. It has a property called self.p_xml which is the ElementTree.Element object (in this case a element). There are various setter and getter properties which either return properties of the element or set them.

The setters and getters are the result of a lot of reverse engineering. The Python method names typically match up with the Tableau Desktop name for an option. For example:

@property
def allowable_values(self) -> str:
    return self.p_xml.get('param-domain-type')

The property name is "allowable_values", which is what you would see in the dialog box when creating a Parameter within Tableau. But the XML that is retrieved is from the property 'param-domain-type'.

Rather than a single setter on this property (which other properties do have), there are several methods which present an interface that matches with Tableau Desktop to the developer, but do the correct things within the XML structure:

set_allowable_values_to_range()

set_allowable_values_to_list()

etc.

On the other hand, some setter / getter pairs do exist. Note how much logic there is to set a single string value properly:

@property
def current_value(self) -> str:
    # Returns the alias if one exists
    if self.p_xml.get('alias') is None:
        return self.p_xml.get('value')
    else:
        return self.p_xml.get('alias')

@current_value.setter
def current_value(self, current_value: str):
    # The set value is both in the column tag and has a separate calculation tag

    # If there is an alias, have to grab the real value
    actual_value = current_value
    if self._aliases is True:
        self.p_xml.set('alias', str(current_value))
        # Lookup the actual value of the alias
        for value_pair in self._values_list:
            for value in value_pair:
                if value_pair[value] == current_value:
                    actual_value = value

    # Why there have to be a calculation tag as well? I don't know, but there does
    calc = ET.Element('calculation')
    calc.set('class', 'tableau')
    if isinstance(current_value, str) and self.datatype not in ['date', 'datetime']:
        self.p_xml.set('value', quoteattr(actual_value))
        calc.set('formula', quoteattr(actual_value))
    elif self.datatype in ['date', 'datetime']:
        if isinstance(current_value, datetime.date) or isinstance(current_value, datetime.datetime):
            time_str = "#{}#".format(current_value.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H-%M-%S'))
            calc.set('formula', time_str)
        else:
            if not (current_value[0] == '#' and current_value[-1] == '#'):
                raise InvalidOptionException('Time and Datetime strings must start and end with #')
            else:
                calc.set('formula', str(current_value))
    else:
        self.p_xml.set('value', str(actual_value))
        calc.set('formula', str(actual_value))

    self.p_xml.append(calc)

7.5 tableau_datasource.py

By far the most code and features live within the TableauDatasource class. It has a self.xml property that is an ElementTree.Element of the XMl element itself, with all other methods interacting with self.xml.

Within any Tableau Datasource there can be multiple Connections (represented by TableauConnection class) as well as Columns (represented by TableauColumns and TableauColumn class). There are also TableRelations which represent the JOINs or Custom SQL or other aspects between tables within a connection.

Published Datasources have all of their information within the TableauDatasource object, rather than having TableauConnections. There is a is_published boolean property to allow detection of Published Datasources, so that the published_ds_site and published_ds_content_url properties can be set/get .

NOTE AGAIN: Most of this work was confirmed at latest around Tableau 10.5, and versions after 2020.2 have a "Relationships model" which adds considerable complexity that is not modeled at all here.

SECOND NOTE: There is code related to the ability to create a TDS file completely from scratch. However, the complexity of getting everything right version after version meant that all documentation of this has been removed, and those features are untested. I don't recommend attempting to make any of that functionality work again. There are lots of methods of "create_" or "add_new" relating to columns, calculations, etc. All of this could be useful to study for the reverse engineering they imply, but only the "modify existing" methods should be used.

One thing to note about the "component classes" - TableauConnection and TableauColumn - they all have internal self.xml_obj properties which reference particular ElementTree.Element objects but they are all still part of the same larger self.xml from the TableauDatasource class. This may seem like a very technical distinction to make, but from a programming perspective it means that all of the various parts are making changes to a single larger ElementTree.Element object. There is no "combining things back together" at any point - when TableauDatasource converts self.xml to a string, any changes that were made via TableauColumn or TableauConnection will automatically be reflected, because their internal xml objects are descendents of the larger XML object.

The above also means if you need to do something that hasn't been encapsulated with specialized methods, you can just parse the TableauDatasource.xml property directly using the standard Python ElementTree.Element methods. You'll have to look hard at the TWB or TDS file in a text editor, but you should be able to work your way down the document tree and access any element and its properties. This was how many of the features were originally developed - the direct calls were made, then a method was added to formalize those steps with a set of known arguments.

7.5.1 tableau_columns.py

Fields (that are visible in the left side bar of Tableau Desktop) are represented as either or elements within the document XML. The classes in tableau_columns.py encapsulate those elements with methods for getting

The TableauColumns class is just a container for the individual TableauColumn objects within, but it implements get_column_by_name() which searches both names and aliases. In general, if something can be renamed in Tableau Desktop, that will be represented as an 'alias' property within the XML, but the pattern is typically to only actually add an 'alias' property if it differs from the name, which means you have to search both properties, as some elements might not have an alias EVEN IF THEY COULD.

TableauColumn lets you modify the name, datatype, and other properties of a given Field.

TableauHierarchies and TableauHierachy are also defined in this class - whether they can be actively used would require investigation.

7.5.2 tableau_connection.py

TableauConnection contains the most useful set of properties in the whole library. The element describes the set of properties relating to whatever Tableau Native Connector class is being used to get data. There are lots of common properties defined with getter/setter methods (see Section 2 of the README for how to use this functionality).

Similar to all the other classes in this part of the library, there is a TableauConnection.xml_obj property which gives you direct access to the ElementTree.Element object representing the element. If you need to access a property of the connection object that does not have a method, you could use

TableauConnection.xml_obj.get('property-name')

and set via

TableauConnection.xml_obj.set('property-name', 'someValue')

If you look at most of the setter/getter method definitions, they just work along those lines.

7.5.3 table_relations.py

The TableRelations class is an attempt to encapsulate the original Tableau table JOINing paradigm. It does not take into account the new Relationships model at all.

Most of the methods refer to the "main" or "first" of something. Due to the complexity of the possibilities of the table relationships, this functionality is really only intended to work with single tables, a single Custom SQL query, or a connection to a stored procedure. The class does store the full relationship model, but we never came up with a satisfactory syntax to easily define connections between tables (SQL syntax is already very good at this, but that is not how things are defined internally and creating a parser was beyond the project scope at any point).

The generate_relation_section() method is a working model for rebuilding the relations XML correctly, and it is able to regenerate correctly based on any of the update methods. Might be worth studying especially if anyone attempts to work out the newer Tableau Relationships model from recent versions.

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