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python-ffmpeg-video-streaming

📼 Package media content for online streaming(DASH and HLS) using FFmpeg

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📼 Python FFmpeg Video Streaming

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Overview

This package uses the FFmpeg to package media content for online streaming such as DASH and HLS. You can also use DRM for HLS packaging. There are several options to open a file from a cloud and save files to clouds as well.

  • Full Documentation is available describing all features and components.
  • In this version(>=v0.1.0) all codes are rewritten from scratch. If you find any bugs in the library, please file an issue. Pull requests are also welcome.

Contents

Requirements

  1. This version of the package is only compatible with Python 3.7 or higher.

  2. To use this package, you need to install the FFmpeg. You will need both FFmpeg and FFProbe binaries to use it.

Installation

Install the package via pip:

pip install python-ffmpeg-video-streaming

Alternatively, add the dependency directly to your requirements.txt file:

python-ffmpeg-video-streaming>=0.1

Quickstart

First of all, you need to import the package in your code:

import ffmpeg_streaming

Opening a Resource

There are several ways to open a resource.

1. From an FFmpeg supported resource

You can pass a local path of video(or a supported resource) to the input method:

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input('/var/media/video.mp4')

See FFmpeg Protocols Documentation for more information about supported resources such as HTTP, FTP, and etc.

For example:

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input('https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?"PATH TO A VIDEO FILE" or "PATH TO A LIVE HTTP STREAM"')

2. From Clouds

You can open a file from a cloud by passing an instance of the Cloud object to the input method.

from ffmpeg_streaming import S3
s3 = S3(aws_access_key_id='YOUR_KEY_ID', aws_secret_access_key='YOUR_KEY_SECRET', region_name='YOUR_REGION')

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input(s3, bucket_name="bucket-name", key="video.mp4")

Visit this page to see some examples of opening a file from Amazon S3, Google Cloud Storage, Microsoft Azure Storage, and a custom cloud.

3. Capture Webcam or Screen (Live Streaming)

You can pass the name of a supported, connected capture device(i.e. the name of a webcam, camera, screen and etc) to the input method to stream a live media over the network from your connected device.

capture = ffmpeg_streaming.input('CAMERA NAME OR SCREEN NAME', capture=True)

To list the supported, connected capture devices, see FFmpeg Capture Webcam and FFmpeg Capture Desktop.

DASH

Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high-quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers. Learn more

Create DASH files:

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats

dash = video.dash(Formats.h264())
dash.auto_generate_representations()
dash.output('/var/media/dash.mpd')

Generate representations manually:

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats, Bitrate, Representation, Size

_144p  = Representation(Size(256, 144), Bitrate(95 * 1024, 64 * 1024))
_240p  = Representation(Size(426, 240), Bitrate(150 * 1024, 94 * 1024))
_360p  = Representation(Size(640, 360), Bitrate(276 * 1024, 128 * 1024))
_480p  = Representation(Size(854, 480), Bitrate(750 * 1024, 192 * 1024))
_720p  = Representation(Size(1280, 720), Bitrate(2048 * 1024, 320 * 1024))
_1080p = Representation(Size(1920, 1080), Bitrate(4096 * 1024, 320 * 1024))
_2k    = Representation(Size(2560, 1440), Bitrate(6144 * 1024, 320 * 1024))
_4k    = Representation(Size(3840, 2160), Bitrate(17408 * 1024, 320 * 1024))

dash = video.dash(Formats.h264())
dash.representations(_144p, _240p, _360p, _480p, _720p, _1080p, _2k, _4k)
dash.output('/var/media/dash.mpd')

See DASH section in the documentation, for more examples.

HLS

HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based adaptive bitrate streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software. Client implementations are also available in Microsoft Edge, Firefox, and some versions of Google Chrome. Support is widespread in streaming media servers. Learn more

Create HLS files:

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.auto_generate_representations()
hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8')

Generate representations manually:

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats, Bitrate, Representation, Size

_360p  = Representation(Size(640, 360), Bitrate(276 * 1024, 128 * 1024))
_480p  = Representation(Size(854, 480), Bitrate(750 * 1024, 192 * 1024))
_720p  = Representation(Size(1280, 720), Bitrate(2048 * 1024, 320 * 1024))

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.representations(_360p, _480p, _720p)
hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8')

See HLS section in the documentation, for more examples such as Fragmented MP4, live from camera/screen and so on.

Encryption(DRM)

The encryption process requires some kind of secret (key) together with an encryption algorithm. HLS uses AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode. This means each block is encrypted using the ciphertext of the preceding block. Learn more

You must specify a path to save a random key to your local machine and also a URL(or a path) to access the key on your website(the key you will save must be accessible from your website). You must pass both these parameters to the encryption method:

Single Key

The following code generates a key for all segment files.

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats

#A path you want to save a random key to your local machine
save_to = '/home/public_html/"PATH TO THE KEY DIRECTORY"/key'

#A URL (or a path) to access the key on your website
url = 'https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?"PATH TO THE KEY DIRECTORY"/key'
# or url = '/"PATH TO THE KEY DIRECTORY"/key';

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.encryption(save_to, url)
hls.auto_generate_representations()
hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8')
Key Rotation

An integer as a "key rotation period" can also be passed to the encryption method (i.e. encryption(save_to, url, 10)) to use a different key for each set of segments, rotating to a new key after this many segments. For example, if 10 segment files have been generated then it will generate a new key. If you set this value to 1, each segment file will be encrypted with a new encryption key. This can improve security and allows for more flexibility.

See the example for more information.

IMPORTANT: It is very important to protect your key(s) on your website. For example, you can use a token(using a Get/Post HTTP method or add a token to authorization header) to check if the user is eligible to access the key or not. You can also use a session(or cookie) on your website to restrict access to the key(s)(It is highly recommended).

DRM

However FFmpeg supports AES encryption for HLS packaging, which you can encrypt your content, it is not a full DRM solution. If you want to use a full DRM solution, I recommend trying FairPlay Streaming solution which then securely exchange keys, and protect playback on devices.

Besides Apple's FairPlay DRM system, you can also use other DRM systems such as Microsoft's PlayReady and Google's Widevine.

Transcoding

You can get realtime information about the transcoding using the following code.

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats
import sys

def monitor(ffmpeg, duration, time_, time_left, process):
    """
    Handling proccess.

    Examples:
    1. Logging or printing ffmpeg command
    logging.info(ffmpeg) or print(ffmpeg)

    2. Handling Process object
    if "something happened":
        process.terminate()

    3. Email someone to inform about the time of finishing process
    if time_left > 3600 and not already_send:  # if it takes more than one hour and you have not emailed them already
        ready_time = time_left + time.time()
        Email.send(
            email='someone@somedomain.com',
            subject='Your video will be ready by %s' % datetime.timedelta(seconds=ready_time),
            message='Your video takes more than %s hour(s) ...' % round(time_left / 3600)
        )
       already_send = True

    4. Create a socket connection and show a progress bar(or other parameters) to your users
    Socket.broadcast(
        address=127.0.0.1
        port=5050
        data={
            percentage = per,
            time_left = datetime.timedelta(seconds=int(time_left))
        }
    )

    :param ffmpeg: ffmpeg command line
    :param duration: duration of the video
    :param time_: current time of transcoded video
    :param time_left: seconds left to finish the video process
    :param process: subprocess object
    :return: None
    """
    per = round(time_ / duration * 100)
    sys.stdout.write(
        "\rTranscoding...(%s%%) %s left [%s%s]" %
        (per, datetime.timedelta(seconds=int(time_left)), '#' * per, '-' * (100 - per))
    )
    sys.stdout.flush()

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.auto_generate_representations()
hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8', monitor=monitor)
Output From a Terminal:

transcoding

Saving Files

There are several ways to save files.

1. To a Local Path

You can pass a local path to the output method. If there is no directory, then the package will create it.

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats

dash = video.dash(Formats.h264())
dash.auto_generate_representations()

dash.output('/var/media/dash.mpd')

It can also be None. The default path to save files is the input directory.

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.auto_generate_representations()

hls.output()

NOTE: If you open a file from a cloud and do not pass a path to save the file to your local machine, you will have to pass a local path to the output method.

2. To Clouds

You can save your files to a cloud by passing an instance of a CloudManager to the output method.

from ffmpeg_streaming import  S3, CloudManager

s3 = S3(aws_access_key_id='YOUR_KEY_ID', aws_secret_access_key='YOUR_KEY_SECRET', region_name='YOUR_REGION')
save_to_s3 = CloudManager().add(s3, bucket_name="bucket-name")

hls.output(clouds=save_to_s3)

A path can also be passed to save a copy of files to your local machine.

hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8', clouds=save_to_s3)

Visit this page to see some examples of saving files to Amazon S3, Google Cloud Storage, Microsoft Azure Storage, and a custom cloud.

NOTE: This option is only valid for VOD (it does not support live streaming).

Schema: The relation is one-to-many

3. To a Server Instantly

You can pass a URL(or a supported resource like FTP) to the output method to upload all the segments files to the HTTP server(or other protocols) using the HTTP PUT method and update the manifest files every refresh times.

# DASH
dash.output('http://YOUR-WEBSITE.COM/live-stream/out.mpd')

# HLS
hls.save_master_playlist('/var/media/hls.m3u8')
#Before running the following code, you should upload the master playlist to the server. For example upload the '/var/media/hls.m3u8' to 'ftp://[user[:password]@]server[:port]/var/media/hls.m3u8'
hls.output('ftp://[user[:password]@]server[:port]/var/media/hls.m3u8')

See FFmpeg Protocols Documentation for more information about supported resources.

Metadata

You can get information from the video file using the following code.

from ffmpeg_streaming import FFProbe

ffprobe = FFProbe('/var/media/video.mp4')

See the example for more information.

Conversion

You can convert your stream to a file or to another stream protocol. You should pass a manifest of the stream to the input method:

1. HLS To DASH

from ffmpeg_streaming import Formats, Bitrate, Representation, Size

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input('https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?PATH/TO/HLS-MANIFEST.M3U8')

_480p  = Representation(Size(854, 480), Bitrate(750 * 1024, 192 * 1024))

dash = video.dash(Formats.h264())
dash.representations(_480p)
dash.output('/var/media/dash.mpd')

2. DASH To HLS

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input('https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?PATH/TO/DASH-MANIFEST.MPD')

hls = video.hls(Formats.h264())
hls.auto_generate_representations()
hls.output('/var/media/hls.m3u8')

3. Stream(DASH or HLS) To File

video = ffmpeg_streaming.input('https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?PATH/TO/MANIFEST.MPD or M3U8')

stream = video.stream2file(Formats.h264())
stream.output('/var/media/new-video.mp4')

Several Open Source Players

You can use these libraries to play your streams.

FAQs

I created stream files and now what should I pass to a player? You must pass a master playlist(manifest) URL(e.x. https://www.aminyazdanpanah.com/?"PATH TO STREAM DIRECTORY"/dash-stream.mpd or /PATH_TO_STREAM_DIRECTORY/hls-stream.m3u8 ) to a player. See the demo page of these players for more information(hls.js Demo, dash.js Demo, videojs Demo and etc).

My player does not show the quality selector button to change the video quality? Some Players do not have an embedded quality selector button to change this option and you should install(or add) the plugin for this use case. For example, if you are using Videojs to play your stream, you can install videojs-hls-quality-selector to show the quality selector. For adding a plugin to other players, you can easily Google it!

I uploaded my stream files to a cloud but it does not play on my website? If you save your stream content to a cloud(i.e. Amazon S3), make sure your contents are PUBLIC. If they are not, you must change the access control.

Does IOS support the DASH stream? No, IOS does not have native support for DASH. Although there are some libraries such as Viblast and MPEGDASH-iOS-Player to support this technique, I have never tested them. So maybe some of them will not work properly.

See this page for more FAQs.

Contributing and Reporting Bugs

I'd love your help in improving, correcting, adding to the specification. Please file an issue or submit a pull request.

  • See Contributing File for more information.
  • If you discover a security vulnerability within this package, please see SECURITY File for more information.

Credits

License

The MIT License (MIT). See License File for more information.

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