# python-constraint

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# python-constraint

## Introduction

The Python constraint module offers solvers for Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constraint_satisfaction_problem>_ over finite domains in simple and pure Python. CSP is class of problems which may be represented in terms of variables (a, b, ...), domains (a in [1, 2, 3], ...), and constraints (a < b, ...).

## Examples

Basics

This interactive Python session demonstrates the module basic operation:

.. code-block:: python

>>> from constraint import *
>>> problem = Problem()
>>> problem.getSolutions()
[{'a': 3, 'b': 6}, {'a': 3, 'b': 5}, {'a': 3, 'b': 4},
{'a': 2, 'b': 6}, {'a': 2, 'b': 5}, {'a': 2, 'b': 4},
{'a': 1, 'b': 6}, {'a': 1, 'b': 5}, {'a': 1, 'b': 4}]

>>> problem.addConstraint(lambda a, b: a*2 == b,
("a", "b"))
>>> problem.getSolutions()
[{'a': 3, 'b': 6}, {'a': 2, 'b': 4}]

>>> problem = Problem()
>>> problem.addVariables(["a", "b"], [1, 2, 3])
>>> problem.getSolutions()
[{'a': 3, 'b': 2}, {'a': 3, 'b': 1}, {'a': 2, 'b': 3},
{'a': 2, 'b': 1}, {'a': 1, 'b': 2}, {'a': 1, 'b': 3}]

Rooks problem

The following example solves the classical Eight Rooks problem:

.. code-block:: python

>>> problem = Problem()
>>> numpieces = 8
>>> cols = range(numpieces)
>>> rows = range(numpieces)
>>> for col1 in cols:
...     for col2 in cols:
...         if col1 < col2:
...             problem.addConstraint(lambda row1, row2: row1 != row2,
...                                   (col1, col2))
>>> solutions = problem.getSolutions()
>>> solutions
>>> solutions
[{0: 7, 1: 6, 2: 5, 3: 4, 4: 3, 5: 2, 6: 1, 7: 0},
{0: 7, 1: 6, 2: 5, 3: 4, 4: 3, 5: 2, 6: 0, 7: 1},
{0: 7, 1: 6, 2: 5, 3: 4, 4: 3, 5: 1, 6: 2, 7: 0},
{0: 7, 1: 6, 2: 5, 3: 4, 4: 3, 5: 1, 6: 0, 7: 2},
...
{0: 7, 1: 5, 2: 3, 3: 6, 4: 2, 5: 1, 6: 4, 7: 0},
{0: 7, 1: 5, 2: 3, 3: 6, 4: 1, 5: 2, 6: 0, 7: 4},
{0: 7, 1: 5, 2: 3, 3: 6, 4: 1, 5: 2, 6: 4, 7: 0},
{0: 7, 1: 5, 2: 3, 3: 6, 4: 1, 5: 4, 6: 2, 7: 0},
{0: 7, 1: 5, 2: 3, 3: 6, 4: 1, 5: 4, 6: 0, 7: 2},
...]

Magic squares

This example solves a 4x4 magic square:

.. code-block:: python

>>> problem = Problem()
>>> problem.addVariables(range(0, 16), range(1, 16 + 1))
>>> problem.addConstraint(ExactSumConstraint(34), [0, 5, 10, 15])
>>> problem.addConstraint(ExactSumConstraint(34), [3, 6, 9, 12])
>>> for row in range(4):
[row * 4 + i for i in range(4)])
>>> for col in range(4):
[col + 4 * i for i in range(4)])
>>> solutions = problem.getSolutions()

Features
--------

The following solvers are available:

- Backtracking solver
- Recursive backtracking solver
- Minimum conflicts solver

.. role:: python(code)
:language: python

Predefined constraint types currently available:

- :python:`FunctionConstraint`
- :python:`AllDifferentConstraint`
- :python:`AllEqualConstraint`
- :python:`ExactSumConstraint`
- :python:`MaxSumConstraint`
- :python:`MinSumConstraint`
- :python:`InSetConstraint`
- :python:`NotInSetConstraint`
- :python:`SomeInSetConstraint`
- :python:`SomeNotInSetConstraint`

API documentation
-----------------
Documentation for the module is available at: http://labix.org/doc/constraint/

--------------------

.. code-block:: shell

\$ pip install python-constraint

-------

This GitHub organization and repository is a global effort to help to
maintain python-constraint which was written by Gustavo Niemeyer
and originaly located at https://labix.org/python-constraint

- Create some unit tests - DONE
- Enable continuous integration - DONE
- Port to Python 3 (Python 2 being also supported) - DONE
- Respect Style Guide for Python Code (PEP8) - DONE
- Improve code coverage writting more unit tests - ToDo
- Move doc to Sphinx or MkDocs - https://readthedocs.org/ - ToDo

Contact
-------
- `Gustavo Niemeyer <https://github.com/niemeyer/>`_ <gustavo@niemeyer.net>
- `Sébastien Celles <https://github.com/scls19fr/>`_ <s.celles@gmail.com>

But it's probably better to `open an issue <https://github.com/python-constraint/python-constraint/issues>`_.

.. |Build Status| image:: https://travis-ci.org/python-constraint/python-constraint.svg?branch=master
:target: https://travis-ci.org/python-constraint/python-constraint
.. |Code Health| image:: https://landscape.io/github/python-constraint/python-constraint/master/landscape.svg?style=flat
:target: https://landscape.io/github/python-constraint/python-constraint/master
:alt: Code Health
:target: https://coveralls.io/github/python-constraint/python-constraint

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