An efficient and light-weight ordered set of 32 bits integers.





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|Documentation Status|

An efficient and light-weight ordered set of 32 bits integers. This is a Python wrapper for the C library CRoaring <>__.


You can use a bitmap nearly as the classical Python set in your code:

.. code:: python

from pyroaring import BitMap
bm1 = BitMap()
bm2 = BitMap([3, 27, 42])
print("bm1       = %s" % bm1)
print("bm2       = %s" % bm2)
print("bm1 & bm2 = %s" % (bm1&bm2))
print("bm1 | bm2 = %s" % (bm1|bm2))



bm1       = BitMap([3, 18])
bm2       = BitMap([3, 27, 42])
bm1 & bm2 = BitMap([3])
bm1 | bm2 = BitMap([3, 18, 27, 42])

Installation from Pypi

Supported systems: Linux, MacOS or Windows, Python 3.6 or higher. Note that pyroaring might still work with older Python versions, but they are not tested anymore.

To install pyroaring on your local account, use the following command:

.. code:: bash

pip install pyroaring --user

For a system-wide installation, use the following command:

.. code:: bash

pip install pyroaring

Naturally, the latter may require superuser rights (consider prefixing the commands by sudo).

If you want to use Python 3 and your system defaults on Python 2.7, you may need to adjust the above commands, e.g., replace pip by pip3.

Installation from conda-forge

Conda users can install the package from conda-forge:

.. code:: bash

conda install -c conda-forge pyroaring

(Supports Python 3.6 or higher; Mac/Linux/Windows)

Manual compilation / installation

If you want to compile (and install) pyroaring by yourself, for instance to modify the Cython sources or because you do not have pip, follow these steps.

Note that the Python package Cython is required. You may install it as:

.. code:: bash

pip install --upgrade setuptools -user
pip install cython --user

Clone this repository.

.. code:: bash

git clone
cd PyRoaringBitMap
git submodule init && git submodule update

Build pyroaring locally, e.g. to test a new feature you made.

.. code:: bash

python build_ext -i

On macOS this may fail with errors because setuptools adds -arch x86_64 -arch i386 to the compiler command, which may conflict with the -march=native flag. You can overwrite this behavior by setting the ARCHFLAGS flag:

.. code:: bash

ARCHFLAGS="" python build_ext -i

Then you can test the new code:

.. code:: bash

pip install hypothesis --user
python # run the tests, optional but recommended

Install pyroaring (use this if you do not have pip).

.. code:: bash

python install # may require superuser rights, add option --user if you wish to install it on your local account

Package pyroaring.

.. code:: bash

python sdist
pip install dist/pyroaring-0.1.?.tar.gz # optionnal, to install the package

Build a wheel.

.. code:: bash

python bdist_wheel

For all the above commands, two environment variables can be used to control the compilation.

  • DEBUG=1 to build pyroaring in debug mode.
  • ARCHI=<cpu-type> to build pyroaring for the given platform. The platform may be any keyword given to the -march option of gcc (see the documentation <>__). Note that cross-compiling for a 32-bit architecture from a 64-bit architecture is not supported.

Example of use:

.. code:: bash

DEBUG=1 ARCHI=x86-64 python build_ext

Optimizing the builds for your machine (x64)

For recent Intel and AMD (x64) processors under Linux, you may get better performance by requesting that CRoaring be built for your machine, specifically, when building from source. Be mindful that when doing so, the generated binary may only run on your machine.

.. code:: bash

ARCHI=native pip install pyroaring  --no-binary :all:

This approach may not work under macOS.


Pyroaring is compared with the built-in set and other implementations:

  • A Python wrapper <>__ of CRoaring called python-croaring
  • A Cython implementation <>__ of Roaring bitmaps called roaringbitmap
  • A Python implementation of ordered sets <>__ called sortedcontainers

The script measures the time of different set operations. It uses randomly generated sets of size 1e6 and density 0.125. For each operation, the average time (in seconds) of 30 tests is reported.

The results have been obtained with:

  • CPU Intel Xeon CPU E5-2630 v3
  • CPython version 3.5.3
  • gcc version 6.3.0
  • Cython version 0.28.3
  • pyroaring commit dcf448a <>__
  • python-croaring commit 3aa61dd <>__
  • roaringbitmap commit 502d78d <>__
  • sortedcontainers commit 7d6a28c <>__

=============================== =========== ================= =============== ========== ================== operation pyroaring python-croaring roaringbitmap set sortedcontainers =============================== =========== ================= =============== ========== ================== range constructor 3.09e-04 1.48e-04 8.72e-05 7.29e-02 2.08e-01 ordered list constructor 3.45e-02 6.93e-02 1.45e-01 1.86e-01 5.74e-01 list constructor 1.23e-01 1.33e-01 1.55e-01 1.12e-01 5.12e-01 ordered array constructor 5.06e-03 6.42e-03 2.89e-01 9.82e-02 3.01e-01 array constructor 1.13e-01 1.18e-01 4.63e-01 1.45e-01 5.08e-01 element addition 3.08e-07 8.26e-07 2.21e-07 1.50e-07 1.18e-06 element removal 3.44e-07 8.17e-07 2.61e-07 1.78e-07 4.26e-07 membership test 1.24e-07 1.00e-06 1.50e-07 1.00e-07 5.72e-07 union 1.61e-04 1.96e-04 1.44e-04 2.15e-01 1.11e+00 intersection 9.08e-04 9.48e-04 9.26e-04 5.22e-02 1.65e-01 difference 1.57e-04 1.97e-04 1.43e-04 1.56e-01 4.84e-01 symmetric diference 1.62e-04 2.01e-04 1.44e-04 2.62e-01 9.13e-01 equality test 7.80e-05 7.82e-05 5.89e-05 1.81e-02 1.81e-02 subset test 7.92e-05 8.12e-05 8.22e-05 1.81e-02 1.81e-02 conversion to list 4.71e-02 2.78e-01 4.35e-02 5.77e-02 5.32e-02 pickle dump & load 4.02e-04 6.27e-04 5.08e-04 2.41e-01 5.75e-01 "naive" conversion to array 5.12e-02 2.92e-01 4.75e-02 1.20e-01 1.18e-01 "optimized" conversion to array 1.27e-03 3.40e-02 nan nan nan selection 1.77e-06 5.33e-05 1.14e-06 nan 1.64e-05 contiguous slice 9.38e-05 9.51e-05 6.99e-05 nan 2.04e-02 slice 2.88e-03 3.04e-01 1.00e-01 nan 4.74e-01 small slice 8.93e-05 3.00e-01 3.60e-03 nan 1.79e-02 =============================== =========== ================= =============== ========== ==================

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