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pyathenajdbc

PyAthenaJDBC is an Amazon Athena JDBC driver wrapper for the Python DB API 2.0 (PEP 249).

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PyAthenaJDBC

PyAthenaJDBC is an Amazon Athena JDBC driver wrapper for the Python DB API 2.0 (PEP 249).

.. DB API 2.0 (PEP 249): https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/ .. Amazon Athena JDBC driver: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/athena/latest/ug/connect-with-jdbc.html

Requirements

  • Python

    • CPython 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9
  • Java

    • Java >= 8 (JDBC 4.2)

JDBC driver compatibility

+---------------+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Version | JDBC driver version | Vendor | +===============+=====================+===============================================================================+ | < 2.0.0 | == 1.1.0 | AWS (Early released JDBC driver. It is incompatible with Simba's JDBC driver) | +---------------+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | >= 2.0.0 | >= 2.0.5 | Simba | +---------------+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Installation

.. code:: bash

$ pip install PyAthenaJDBC

Extra packages:

+---------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------+ | Package | Install command | Version | +===============+==========================================+=================+ | Pandas | pip install PyAthenaJDBC[Pandas] | >=1.0.0 | +---------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------+ | SQLAlchemy | pip install PyAthenaJDBC[SQLAlchemy] | >=1.0.0, <2.0.0 | +---------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------+

Usage

Basic usage


.. code:: python

    from pyathenajdbc import connect

    conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
                   AwsRegion="us-west-2")
    try:
        with conn.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute("""
            SELECT * FROM one_row
            """)
            print(cursor.description)
            print(cursor.fetchall())
    finally:
        conn.close()

Cursor iteration

.. code:: python

from pyathenajdbc import connect

conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
               AwsRegion="us-west-2")
try:
    with conn.cursor() as cursor:
        cursor.execute("""
        SELECT * FROM many_rows LIMIT 10
        """)
        for row in cursor:
            print(row)
finally:
    conn.close()

Query with parameter


Supported `DB API paramstyle`_ is only ``PyFormat``.
``PyFormat`` only supports `named placeholders`_ with old ``%`` operator style and parameters specify dictionary format.

.. code:: python

    from pyathenajdbc import connect

    conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
                   AwsRegion="us-west-2")
    try:
        with conn.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute("""
            SELECT col_string FROM one_row_complex
            WHERE col_string = %(param)s
            """, {"param": "a string"})
            print(cursor.fetchall())
    finally:
        conn.close()

if ``%`` character is contained in your query, it must be escaped with ``%%`` like the following:

.. code:: sql

    SELECT col_string FROM one_row_complex
    WHERE col_string = %(param)s OR col_string LIKE 'a%%'

.. _`DB API paramstyle`: https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/#paramstyle
.. _`named placeholders`: https://pyformat.info/#named_placeholders

JVM options
~~~~~~~~~~~

In the connect method or connection object, you can specify JVM options with a string array.

You can increase the JVM heap size like the following:

.. code:: python

    from pyathenajdbc import connect

    conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
                   AwsRegion="us-west-2",
                   jvm_options=["-Xms1024m", "-Xmx4096m"])
    try:
        with conn.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute("""
            SELECT * FROM many_rows
            """)
            print(cursor.fetchall())
    finally:
        conn.close()

JDBC 4.1
~~~~~~~~

If you want to use JDBC 4.1, download the corresponding JDBC driver
and specify the path of the downloaded JDBC driver as the argument ``driver_path`` of the connect method or connection object.

* The `AthenaJDBC41-2.0.7.jar`_ is compatible with JDBC 4.1 and requires JDK 7.0 or later.

.. _`AthenaJDBC41-2.0.7.jar`: https://s3.amazonaws.com/athena-downloads/drivers/JDBC/SimbaAthenaJDBC_2.0.7/AthenaJDBC41_2.0.7.jar

.. code:: python

    from pyathenajdbc import connect

    conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
                   AwsRegion="us-west-2",
                   driver_path="/path/to/AthenaJDBC41_2.0.7.jar")

JDBC driver configuration options

The connect method or connection object pass keyword arguments as options to the JDBC driver. If you want to change the behavior of the JDBC driver, specify the option as a keyword argument in the connect method or connection object.

.. code:: python

from pyathenajdbc import connect

conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
               AwsRegion="us-west-2",
               LogPath="/path/to/pyathenajdbc/log/",
               LogLevel="6")

For details of the JDBC driver options refer to the official documentation.

  • JDBC Driver Installation and Configuration Guide_.

.. _JDBC Driver Installation and Configuration Guide: https://s3.amazonaws.com/athena-downloads/drivers/JDBC/SimbaAthenaJDBC_2.0.7/docs/Simba+Athena+JDBC+Driver+Install+and+Configuration+Guide.pdf

NOTE: Option names and values are case-sensitive. The option value is specified as a character string.

SQLAlchemy


Install SQLAlchemy with ``pip install SQLAlchemy>=1.0.0`` or ``pip install PyAthenaJDBC[SQLAlchemy]``.
Supported SQLAlchemy is 1.0.0 or higher and less than 2.0.0.

.. code:: python

    import contextlib
    from urllib.parse import quote_plus
    from sqlalchemy.engine import create_engine
    from sqlalchemy.sql.expression import select
    from sqlalchemy.sql.functions import func
    from sqlalchemy.sql.schema import Table, MetaData

    conn_str = "awsathena+jdbc://{User}:{Password}@athena.{AwsRegion}.amazonaws.com:443/"\
               "{Schema}?S3OutputLocation={S3OutputLocation}"
    engine = create_engine(conn_str.format(
        User=quote_plus("YOUR_ACCESS_KEY"),
        Password=quote_plus("YOUR_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY"),
        AwsRegion="us-west-2",
        Schema="default",
        S3OutputLocation=quote_plus("s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/")))
    try:
        with contextlib.closing(engine.connect()) as conn:
            many_rows = Table("many_rows", MetaData(bind=engine), autoload=True)
            print(select([func.count("*")], from_obj=many_rows).scalar())
    finally:
        engine.dispose()

The connection string has the following format:

.. code:: text

    awsathena+jdbc://{User}:{Password}@athena.{AwsRegion}.amazonaws.com:443/{Schema}?S3OutputLocation={S3OutputLocation}&driver_path={driver_path}&...

If you do not specify ``User`` (i.e. AWSAccessKeyID) and ``Password`` (i.e. AWSSecretAccessKey) using instance profile credentials or credential profiles file:

.. code:: text

    awsathena+jdbc://:@athena.{Region}.amazonaws.com:443/{Schema}?S3OutputLocation={S3OutputLocation}&driver_path={driver_path}&...

NOTE: ``S3OutputLocation`` requires quote. If ``User``, ``Password`` and other parameter contain special characters, quote is also required.

Pandas
~~~~~~

As DataFrame
^^^^^^^^^^^^

You can use the `pandas.read_sql`_ to handle the query results as a `DataFrame object`_.

.. code:: python

    from pyathenajdbc import connect
    import pandas as pd

    conn = connect(User="YOUR_ACCESS_KEY_ID",
                   Password="YOUR_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY",
                   S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
                   AwsRegion="us-west-2",
                   jvm_path="/path/to/jvm")
    df = pd.read_sql("SELECT * FROM many_rows LIMIT 10", conn)

The ``pyathena.util`` package also has helper methods.

.. code:: python

    import contextlib
    from pyathenajdbc import connect
    from pyathenajdbc.util import as_pandas

    with contextlib.closing(
            connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/"
                    AwsRegion="us-west-2"))) as conn:
        with conn.cursor() as cursor:
            cursor.execute("""
            SELECT * FROM many_rows
            """)
            df = as_pandas(cursor)
    print(df.describe())

.. _`pandas.read_sql`: https://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/reference/api/pandas.read_sql.html
.. _`DataFrame object`: https://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/reference/api/pandas.DataFrame.html

To SQL
^^^^^^

You can use `pandas.DataFrame.to_sql`_ to write records stored in DataFrame to Amazon Athena.
`pandas.DataFrame.to_sql`_ uses `SQLAlchemy`_, so you need to install it.

.. code:: python

    import pandas as pd
    from urllib.parse import quote_plus
    from sqlalchemy import create_engine
    conn_str = "awsathena+jdbc://:@athena.{AwsRegion}.amazonaws.com:443/"\
               "{Schema}?S3OutputLocation={S3OutputLocation}&S3Location={S3Location}&compression=snappy"
    engine = create_engine(conn_str.format(
        AwsRegion="us-west-2",
        Schema_name="YOUR_SCHEMA",
        S3OutputLocation=quote_plus("s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/"),
        S3Location=quote_plus("s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/")))
    df = pd.DataFrame({"a": [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]})
    df.to_sql("YOUR_TABLE", engine, schema="YOUR_SCHEMA", index=False, if_exists="replace", method="multi")

The location of the Amazon S3 table is specified by the ``S3Location`` parameter in the connection string.
If ``S3Location`` is not specified, ``S3OutputLocation`` parameter will be used. The following rules apply.

.. code:: text

    s3://{S3Location or S3OutputLocation}/{schema}/{table}/

The data format only supports Parquet. The compression format is specified by the ``compression`` parameter in the connection string.

.. _`pandas.DataFrame.to_sql`: https://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/reference/api/pandas.DataFrame.to_sql.html

Credential
----------

AWS credentials provider chain

See Supplying and retrieving AWS credentials_

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSJavaSDK/latest/javadoc/com/amazonaws/auth/DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain.html

AWS credentials provider chain that looks for credentials in this order:

    * Environment Variables - AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY (RECOMMENDED since they are recognized by all the AWS SDKs and CLI except for .NET), or AWS_ACCESS_KEY and AWS_SECRET_KEY (only recognized by Java SDK)
    * Java System Properties - aws.accessKeyId and aws.secretKey
    * Web Identity Token credentials from the environment or container
    * Credential profiles file at the default location (~/.aws/credentials) shared by all AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI
    * Credentials delivered through the Amazon EC2 container service if AWS_CONTAINER_CREDENTIALS_RELATIVE_URI" environment variable is set and security manager has permission to access the variable,
    * Instance profile credentials delivered through the Amazon EC2 metadata service

In the connect method or connection object, you can connect by specifying at least S3OutputLocation and AwsRegion. User and Password are not required if environment variables, credential files, or instance profiles have been set.

.. code:: python

from pyathenajdbc import connect

conn = connect(S3OutputLocation="s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/",
               AwsRegion="us-west-2")

.. _Supplying and retrieving AWS credentials: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/sdk-for-java/latest/developer-guide/credentials.html

Testing

Depends on the following environment variables:

.. code:: bash

$ export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=YOUR_ACCESS_KEY_ID
$ export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=YOUR_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
$ export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-west-2
$ export AWS_ATHENA_S3_STAGING_DIR=s3://YOUR_S3_BUCKET/path/to/

And you need to create a workgroup named test-pyathena-jdbc.

Run test


.. code:: bash

    $ pip install poetry
    $ poetry install -v
    $ poetry run scripts/test_data/upload_test_data.sh
    $ poetry run pytest
    $ poetry run scripts/test_data/delete_test_data.sh

Run test multiple Python versions

.. code:: bash

$ pip install poetry
$ poetry install -v
$ poetry run scripts/test_data/upload_test_data.sh
$ pyenv local 3.9.0 3.8.6 3.7.9 3.6.12
$ poetry run tox
$ poetry run scripts/test_data/delete_test_data.sh

Code formatting

The code formatting uses black and isort.

Appy format


.. code:: bash

    $ make fmt

Check format

.. code:: bash

$ make chk

.. black: https://github.com/psf/black .. isort: https://github.com/timothycrosley/isort

License

The license of all Python code except JDBC driver is MIT license_.

.. _MIT license: LICENSE

JDBC driver


For the license of JDBC driver, please check the following link.

* `JDBC driver release notes`_
* `JDBC driver license`_
* `JDBC driver notices`_
* `JDBC driver third-party licenses`_

.. _`JDBC driver release notes`: jdbc/release-notes.txt
.. _`JDBC driver License`: jdbc/LICENSE.txt
.. _`JDBC driver notices`: jdbc/NOTICES.txt
.. _`JDBC driver third-party licenses`: jdbc/third-party-licenses.txt

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