pla

plac

Plac: Parsing the Command Line the Easy Way

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Plac: Parsing the Command Line the Easy Way

plac is a Python package that can generate command line parameters from function signatures.

plac works on Python 2.6 through all versions of Python 3.

plac has no dependencies beyond modules already present in the Python standard library.

plac implements most of its functionality in a single file that may be included in your source code.

Quickstart

Here is how to turn a script that does some processing on a database table into a full, command-line enabled program:

# updatedb.py
from datetime import datetime

def main(dsn, table='product', today=datetime.today()):
    "Do something on the database"
    print(dsn, table, today)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    import plac
    plac.call(main)

Here is the help message automatically generated by plac:

python updatedb.py -h

prints:

usage: updatedb.py [-h] dsn [table] [today]

Do something on the database

positional arguments:
  dsn
  table       [product]
  today       [2019-07-28 07:18:20.054708]

optional arguments:
   -h, --help  show this help message and exit

Next steps

The automatic inference takes us only so far, usually we need more control over the parameters. plac offers simple decorator helpers for positional, option and flag type parameters:

import plac

from pathlib import Path

@plac.pos('model', "Model name", choices=['A', 'B', 'C'])
@plac.opt('output_dir', "Optional output directory", type=Path)
@plac.opt('n_iter', "Number of training iterations", type=int)
@plac.flg('debug', "Enable debug mode")
def main(model, output_dir='.', n_iter=100, debug=False):
    """A script for machine learning"""
    pass

if __name__ == '__main__':
    plac.call(main)

Running the script with $ python example.py -h will give you the following help message: :

usage: example.py [-h] [-o .] [-n 100] [-d] {A,B,C}

A script for machine learning

positional arguments:
  {A,B,C}               Model name

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -o ., --output-dir .  Optional output directory
  -n 100, --n-iter 100  Number of training iterations
  -d, --debug           Enable debug mode

Quick reference

The following decorator reference helps you recall what parameters are valid for each decorator type:

# Positional parameters.
def pos(arg, help=None, type=None, choices=None, metavar=None):

# Option parameters.
def opt(arg, help=None, type=None, abbrev=None, choices=None, metavar=None):

# Flag parameters.
def flg(arg, help=None, abbrev=None):

Notably, the main functionality of plac is implemented in a single module called plac_core.py that, if necessary, may be included and distributed with your source code thus reducing external dependencies in your code.

Avoiding name clashes

Python syntax, or your variable naming may impose constraints on what words may be used as parameters. To circumvent that limitation append a trailing underscore to the name. plac will strip that underscore from the command line parameter name:

import plac

@plac.flg('list_')  # avoid clash with builtin
@plac.flg('yield_')  # avoid clash with keyword
@plac.opt('sys_')  # avoid clash with a very common name
def main(list_, yield_=False, sys_=100):
    print(list_)
    print(yield_)
    print(sys_)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    plac.call(main)

produces the usage:

usage: example13.py [-h] [-l] [-y] [-s 100]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help         show this help message and exit
  -l, --list
  -y, --yield        [False]
  -s 100, --sys 100  [100]

Variable arguments

Your plac enabled program may accept multiple positional arguments and even additional key=value pairs:

import plac

@plac.pos('args', help="words")
@plac.opt('kwds', help="key=value", )
def main(*args, **kwds):
    print(args)
    print(kwds)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    plac.call(main)

the usage will be:

usage: example15.py [-h] [args [args ...]] [kwds [kwds ...]]

positional arguments:
  args        words
  kwds        key=value

optional arguments:
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

when running it as:

python example15.py A B x=10 y=20

the program prints:

('A', 'B')
{'x': '10', 'y': '20'}

Documentation

In addition, plac can do a lot more, up to the creation of domain-specific languages(!). See the full documentation for more details.

Installation

If you wish to install the package do

pip install plac

If you prefer to install the full distribution from source, including the documentation, download the tarball, unpack it and run

python setup.py install

Testing

Run

python doc/test_plac.py

You will see several apparent errors, but this is right, since the tests are checking for several error conditions. The important thing is that you get at the a line like

Executed XX tests OK

Code

Author: Michele Simionato, michele.simionato@gmail.com

Maintainer: Istvan Albert, istvan.albert@gmail.com

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License

BSD License

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