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ensure

Validate conditions, Python style.

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ensure: Literate assertions in Python

ensure is a set of simple assertion helpers that let you write more expressive, literate, concise, and readable Pythonic code for validating conditions. It's inspired by should.js <https://github.com/shouldjs/should.js>, expect.js <https://github.com/Automattic/expect.js>, and builds on top of the unittest/JUnit assert helpers <http://docs.python.org/2/library/unittest.html#assert-methods>_.

If you use Python 3, you can use ensure to enforce your function signature annotations: see PEP 3107 <http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3107/> and the @ensure_annotations <https://ensure.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#ensure.ensure_annotations> decorator below.

Because ensure is fast, is a standalone library (not part of a test framework), doesn't monkey-patch anything or use DSLs, and doesn't use the assert statement (which is liable to be turned off with the -O flag), it can be used to validate conditions in production code, not just for testing (though it certainly works as a BDD test utility library).

Aside from better looking code, a big reason to use ensure is that it provides more consistent, readable, and informative error messages when things go wrong. See Motivation and Goals <https://github.com/kislyuk/ensure#motivation-and-goals>_ for more.

Installation

::

pip install ensure

Synopsis

.. code-block:: python

from ensure import ensure

ensure(1).is_an(int)
ensure({1: {2: 3}}).equals({1: {2: 3}}).also.contains(1)
ensure({1: "a"}).has_key(1).whose_value.has_length(1)
ensure.each_of([{1: 2}, {3: 4}]).is_a(dict).of(int).to(int)
ensure(int).called_with("1100101", base=2).returns(101)
ensure(dict).called_with(1, 2).raises(TypeError)
check(1).is_a(float).or_raise(Exception, "An error happened: {msg}. See http://example.com for more information.")

In Python 3:

.. code-block:: python

from ensure import ensure_annotations

@ensure_annotations
def f(x: int, y: float) -> float:
    return x+y

See More examples below.

Notes

The ``ensure`` module exports the ``Ensure`` class and its convenience instance ``ensure``. Instances of the class are
callable, and the call will reset the contents that the instance is inspecting, so you can reuse it for many checks (as
seen above).

The class raises ``EnsureError`` (a subclass of ``AssertionError``) by default.

There are several ways to **chain clauses**, depending on the grammatical context: ``.also``, ``.which``, and
``.whose_value`` are available per examples below.

Raising custom exceptions

You can pass a callable or exception class as the error_factory keyword argument to Ensure(), or you can use the Check class or its convenience instance check(). This class behaves like Ensure, but does not raise errors immediately. It saves them and chains the methods otherwise(), or_raise() and or_call() to the end of the clauses.

.. code-block:: python

from ensure import check

check("w00t").is_an(int).or_raise(Exception)
check(1).is_a(float).or_raise(Exception, "An error happened: {msg}. See http://example.com for more information.")
check("w00t").is_an(int).or_raise(MyException, 1, 2, x=3, y=4)

.. code-block:: python

def build_fancy_exception(original_exception):
    return MyException(original_exception)

check("w00t").is_an(int).otherwise(build_fancy_exception)
check("w00t").is_an(int).or_call(build_fancy_exception, *args, **kwargs)

More examples

.. code-block:: python

ensure({1: {2: 3}}).is_not_equal_to({1: {2: 4}})
ensure(True).does_not_equal(False)
ensure(1).is_in(range(10))
ensure(True).is_a(bool)
ensure(True).is_(True)
ensure(True).is_not(False)

.. code-block:: python

ensure(["train", "boat"]).contains_one_of(["train"])
ensure(range(8)).contains(5)
ensure(["spam"]).contains_none_of(["eggs", "ham"])
ensure("abcdef").contains_some_of("abcxyz")
ensure("abcdef").contains_one_or_more_of("abcxyz")
ensure("abcdef").contains_all_of("acf")
ensure("abcd").contains_only("dcba")
ensure("abc").does_not_contain("xyz")
ensure([1, 2, 3]).contains_no(float)
ensure(1).is_in(range(10))
ensure("z").is_not_in("abc")
ensure(None).is_not_in([])
ensure(dict).has_attribute('__contains__').which.is_callable()
ensure({1: "a", 2: "b", 3: "c"}).has_keys([1, 2])
ensure({1: "a", 2: "b"}).has_only_keys([1, 2])

.. code-block:: python

ensure(1).is_true()
ensure(0).is_false()
ensure(None).is_none()
ensure(1).is_not_none()
ensure("").is_empty()
ensure([1, 2]).is_nonempty().also.has_length(2)
ensure(1.1).is_a(float).which.equals(1.10)
ensure(KeyError()).is_an(Exception)
ensure({x: str(x) for x in range(5)}).is_a_nonempty(dict).of(int).to(str)
ensure({}).is_an_empty(dict)
ensure(None).is_not_a(list)

.. code-block:: python

import re
ensure("abc").matches("A", flags=re.IGNORECASE)
ensure([1, 2, 3]).is_an_iterable_of(int)
ensure([1, 2, 3]).is_a_list_of(int)
ensure({1, 2, 3}).is_a_set_of(int)
ensure({1: 2, 3: 4}).is_a_mapping_of(int).to(int)
ensure({1: 2, 3: 4}).is_a_dict_of(int).to(int)
ensure({1: 2, 3: 4}).is_a(dict).of(int).to(int)
ensure(10**100).is_numeric()
ensure(lambda: 1).is_callable()
ensure("abc").has_length(3)
ensure("abc").has_length(min=3, max=8)
ensure(1).is_greater_than(0)
ensure(1).exceeds(0)
ensure(0).is_less_than(1)
ensure(1).is_greater_than_or_equal_to(1)
ensure(0).is_less_than_or_equal_to(0)
ensure(1).is_positive()
ensure(1.1).is_a_positive(float)
ensure(-1).is_negative()
ensure(-1).is_a_negative(int)
ensure(0).is_nonnegative()
ensure(0).is_a_nonnegative(int)
ensure([1,2,3]).is_sorted()

.. code-block:: python

ensure("{x} {y}".format).called_with(x=1, y=2).equals("1 2")
ensure(int).called_with("1100101", base=2).returns(101)
ensure("{x} {y}".format).with_args(x=1, y=2).is_a(str)
with ensure().raises(ZeroDivisionError):
    1/0
with ensure().raises_regex(NameError, "'w00t' is not defined"):
    w00t

See complete API documentation <https://ensure.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#module-ensure>_.

Enforcing function annotations

Use the ``@ensure_annotations`` decorator to enforce
`function signature annotations <http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3107/>`_:

.. code-block:: python

    from ensure import ensure_annotations

    @ensure_annotations
    def f(x: int, y: float) -> float:
        return x+y

    f(1, 2.3)

::

    >>> 3.3

.. code-block:: python

    f(1, 2)

::

    >>> ensure.EnsureError: Argument y to <function f at 0x109b7c710> does not match annotation type <class 'float'>

Compare this runtime type checking to compile-time checking in `Mypy <http://www.mypy-lang.org/>`_ and `type hinting in PEP 484/Python 3.5+ <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0484/>`_.

Motivation and goals
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Many BDD assertion libraries suffer from an excess of magic, or end up having to construct statements that don't parse
as English easily. *ensure* is deliberately kept simple to avoid succumbing to either issue. The
`source <https://github.com/kislyuk/ensure/blob/master/ensure/__init__.py>`_ is easy to read and extend.

Work remains to make error messages raised by *ensure* even more readable, informative, and consistent. Going forward,
ability to introspect exceptions to extract structured error information will be a major development
focus. You will be in control of how much information is presented in each error, which context it's thrown from, and
what introspection capabilities the exception object will have.

The original use case for *ensure* is as an I/O validation helper for API endpoints, where the client needs to be sent a
very clear message about what went wrong, some structured information (such as an HTTP error code and machine-readable
reference to a failing element) may need to be added, and some information may need to be hidden from the client. To
further improve on that, we will work on better error translation, marshalling, message formatting, and schema
validation helpers.

Authors
-------
* Andrey Kislyuk
* Harrison Metzger

Links
-----
* `Project home page (GitHub) <https://github.com/kislyuk/ensure>`_
* `Documentation (Read the Docs) <https://ensure.readthedocs.io/en/latest/>`_
* `Package distribution (PyPI) <https://pypi.python.org/pypi/ensure>`_

Bugs
~~~~
Please report bugs, issues, feature requests, etc. on `GitHub <https://github.com/kislyuk/ensure/issues>`_.

License
-------
Licensed under the terms of the `Apache License, Version 2.0 <http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0>`_.

.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/kislyuk/ensure.png
        :target: https://travis-ci.org/kislyuk/ensure
.. image:: https://codecov.io/github/kislyuk/ensure/coverage.svg?branch=master
        :target: https://codecov.io/github/kislyuk/ensure?branch=master
.. image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/ensure.svg
        :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/ensure
.. image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/l/ensure.svg
        :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/ensure
.. image:: https://readthedocs.org/projects/ensure/badge/?version=latest
        :target: https://ensure.readthedocs.io/

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