dt
django-types
pypi i django-types
dt

django-types

🍩 Type stubs for Django

by Steve Dignam

0.16.0 (see all)License:MIT
pypi i django-types
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django-types PyPI

Type stubs for Django.

Note: this project was forked from https://github.com/typeddjango/django-stubs with the goal of removing the mypy plugin dependency so that mypy can't crash due to Django config, and that non-mypy type checkers like pyright will work better with Django.

install

pip install django-types

You'll need to monkey patch Django's QuerySet, Manager (not needed for Django 3.1+) and ForeignKey (not needed for Django 4.1+) classes so we can index into them with a generic argument. Add this to your settings.py:

# in settings.py
from django.db.models import ForeignKey
from django.db.models.manager import BaseManager
from django.db.models.query import QuerySet

# NOTE: there are probably other items you'll need to monkey patch depending on
# your version.
for cls in [QuerySet, BaseManager, ForeignKey]:
    cls.__class_getitem__ = classmethod(lambda cls, *args, **kwargs: cls)  # type: ignore [attr-defined]

usage

When defining a Django ORM model with a foreign key, like so:

class User(models.Model):
    team = models.ForeignKey(
        "Team",
        null=True,
        on_delete=models.SET_NULL,
    )
    role = models.ForeignKey(
        "Role",
        null=True,
        on_delete=models.SET_NULL,
        related_name="users",
    )

two properties are created, team as expected, and team_id. Also, a related manager called user_set is created on Team for the reverse access.

In order to properly add typing to the foreing key itself and also for the created ids you can do something like this:

from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

from someapp.models import Team
if TYPE_CHECKING:
    # In this example Role cannot be imported due to circular import issues,
    # but doing so inside TYPE_CHECKING will make sure that the typing bellow
    # knows what "Role" means
    from anotherapp.models import Role


class User(models.Model):
    team_id: Optional[int]
    team = models.ForeignKey(
        Team,
        null=True,
        on_delete=models.SET_NULL,
    )
    role_id: int
    role = models.ForeignKey["Role"](
        "Role",
        null=False,
        on_delete=models.SET_NULL,
        related_name="users",
    )


reveal_type(User().team)
# note: Revealed type is 'Optional[Team]'
reveal_type(User().role)
# note: Revealed type is 'Role'

This will make sure that team_id and role_id can be accessed. Also, team and role will be typed to their right objects.

To be able to access the related manager Team and Role you could do:

from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

if TYPE_CHECKING:
    # This doesn't really exists on django so it always need to be imported this way
    from django.db.models.manager import RelatedManager
    from user.models import User


class Team(models.Model):
    if TYPE_CHECKING:
        user_set = RelatedManager["User"]()


class Role(models.Model):
    if TYPE_CHECKING:
        users = RelatedManager["User"]()

reveal_type(Team().user_set)
# note: Revealed type is 'RelatedManager[User]'
reveal_type(Role().users)
# note: Revealed type is 'RelatedManager[User]'

An alternative is using annotations:

from __future__ import annotations  # or just be in python 3.11

from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

if TYPE_CHECKING:
    from django.db.models import Manager
    from user.models import User


class Team(models.Model):
    user_set: Manager[User]


class Role(models.Model):
    users: Manager[User]

reveal_type(Team().user_set)
# note: Revealed type is 'Manager[User]'
reveal_type(Role().users)
# note: Revealed type is 'Manager[User]'

id Field

By default Django will create an AutoField for you if one doesn't exist.

For type checkers to know about the id field you'll need to declare the field explicitly.

# before
class Post(models.Model):
    ...

# after
class Post(models.Model):
    id = models.AutoField(primary_key=True)
    # OR
    id: int

HttpRequest's user property

The HttpRequest's user property has a type of Union[AbstractBaseUser, AnonymousUser], but for most of your views you'll probably want either an authed user or an AnonymousUser.

So we can define a subclass for each case:

class AuthedHttpRequest(HttpRequest):
    user: User  # type: ignore [assignment]

And then you can use it in your views:

@auth.login_required
def activity(request: AuthedHttpRequest, team_id: str) -> HttpResponse:
    ...

You can also get more strict with your login_required decorator so that the first argument of the fuction it is decorating is AuthedHttpRequest:

from typing import Any, Union, TypeVar, cast
from django.http import HttpRequest, HttpResponse
from typing_extensions import Protocol
from functools import wraps

class RequestHandler1(Protocol):
    def __call__(self, request: AuthedHttpRequest) -> HttpResponse:
        ...


class RequestHandler2(Protocol):
    def __call__(self, request: AuthedHttpRequest, __arg1: Any) -> HttpResponse:
        ...


RequestHandler = Union[RequestHandler1, RequestHandler2]


# Verbose bound arg due to limitations of Python typing.
# see: https://github.com/python/mypy/issues/5876
_F = TypeVar("_F", bound=RequestHandler)


def login_required(view_func: _F) -> _F:
    @wraps(view_func)
    def wrapped_view(
        request: AuthedHttpRequest, *args: object, **kwargs: object
    ) -> HttpResponse:
        if request.user.is_authenticated:
            return view_func(request, *args, **kwargs)  # type: ignore [call-arg]
        raise AuthenticationRequired

    return cast(_F, wrapped_view)

Then the following will type error:

@auth.login_required
def activity(request: HttpRequest, team_id: str) -> HttpResponse:
    ...

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