couchbase

Couchbase Python Client Library (Official)

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Couchbase Python Client

Python client for Couchbase

NOTE: This is the documentation for the 3.x version of the client. This is mostly compatible with the older version. Please refer to the release25 branch for the older version.

Contents

Prerequisites

  • Couchbase Server
  • You may need a C compiler and Python development files, unless a binary wheel is available for your platform. Currently, wheels are only available on Windows for Python 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9. We will endeavor to add more.
  • Git, if a binary wheel is not available.

Debian and Ubuntu

First-time setup:

$ sudo apt install git-all python3-dev python3-pip python3-setuptools cmake build-essential

For TLS/SSL support:

$ sudo apt install libssl-dev

See Debian and Ubuntu install section to install SDK.

RHEL and CentOS

First-time setup:

$ sudo yum install git-all gcc gcc-c++ python3-devel python3-pip python3-setuptools cmake

NOTE: The minimum version of CMake support is 3.5.1. Check out the steps here to update CMake.

For TLS/SSL support:

$ sudo yum install openssl-devel

See RHEL and Centos install section to install SDK.

Mac OS

It is not recommended to use the vendor-supplied Python that ships with OS X. Best practice is to use a Python virtual environment such as pyenv or venv (after another version of Python that is not vendor-supplied has been installed) to manage multiple versions of Python.

IMPORTANT
There can be a problem when using the Python (3.8.2) that ships with Xcode on Catalina. It is advised to install Python with one of the following:

pyenv

See detailed walk through in Appendix. Also, see pyenv install docs for further details.

Homebrew

See Homebrew install docs for further details.

Get the latest packages:

$ brew update

Install Python:

$ brew install python

Update path:

  • zsh:
    $ echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/bin:"$PATH' >> ~/.zshrc
    
  • bash:
    $ echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/bin:"$PATH' >> ~/.bash_profile
    

For TLS/SSL support:

$ brew install openssl

See Mac OS install section to install SDK.

Windows

Wheels are available on Windows for Python 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9.

NOTE: Python 3.9 wheel was released with v 3.1.2 of the SDK

Best practice is to use a Python virtual environment such as venv or pyenv (checkout the pyenv-win project) to manage multiple versions of Python.

If wanting to install from source, see the Windows building section for details.

See Windows install section to install SDK.

Installing

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You can always get the latest supported release version from pypi.

NOTE: If you have a recent version of pip, you may use the latest development version by issuing the following incantation:

pip install git+git://github.com/couchbase/couchbase-python-client

NOTE: Currently the Python Client source distribution requires the OpenSSL headers and libraries that the Python client itself was built against to be installed prior to the client itself for TLS support to be provided. Additionally the installer relies on PEP517 which older versions of PIP do not support. If you experience issues installing it is advised to upgrade your PIP/setuptools installation as follows:

python3 -m pip install --upgrade pip setuptools wheel

Debian and Ubuntu

First, make sure the prerequisites have been installed.

Install the SDK:

$ python3 -m pip install couchbase

RHEL and CentOS

First, make sure the prerequisites have been installed.

Install the SDK:

$ python3 -m pip install couchbase

Mac OS

First, make sure the prerequisites have been installed.

Install the SDK:

$ python -m pip install couchbase

Windows

First, make sure the prerequisites have been installed.

NOTE: Commands assume user is working within a virtual environment. For example, the following commands have been executed after downloading and installing Python from python.org:
-C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python39\python -m venv C:\python\python39
-C:\python\python39\Scripts\activate

Install the SDK (if using Python 3.7, 3.8 or 3.9):

python -m pip install couchbase

Alternative Installation Methods

In order to successfully install with the following methods, ensure a proper build system is in place (see the Windows building section for details).

Source Install (i.e. no wheel)

First, ensure all the requirements for a build system are met.

Install the SDK:

python -m pip install couchbase --no-binary couchbase

Local Install

First, ensure all the requirements for a build system are met.

Clone this Python SDK repository:

git clone --depth 1 --branch <tag_name> https://github.com/couchbase/couchbase-python-client.git

Where tag_name is equal to the latest release.
Example: git clone --depth 1 --branch 3.1.2 https://github.com/couchbase/couchbase-python-client.git

Move into the directory created after cloning the Python SDK repository:

cd couchbase-python-client

Install the SDK from source:

python -m pip install .

Anaconda/Miniconda

To use the SDK within the Anaconda/Miniconda platform, make sure the prerequisites for the desired Operating System are met:

In the Anaconda Prompt, create a new environment:

(base) C:\Users\user1>conda create -n test_env python=3.9

Activate the environment

(base) C:\Users\user1>conda activate test_env

Install the SDK:

(test_env) C:\Users\user1>python -m pip install couchbase

NOTE: If using Windows, and no wheel is available, see the Alternative Install Methods Windows section. The same process should work within the Anaconda/Miniconda platform.

Building

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NOTE: This section only applies to building from source.

Build System Setup

Linux

Make sure the prerequisites have been installed:

Mac OS

First, make sure the prerequisites have been installed.

Install cmake:

$ brew install cmake

Install command line developer tools:

$ xcode-select --install

NOTE: It is possible that installing or updating to the the latest version of Xcode is needed.

If setuptools is not installed:

$ python -m pip install setuptools

Windows

Requirements

  • Download and install Git
  • Download and install Visual Studio 2019
    • Check Desktop development with C++ prior to installing
  • Download and install CMake >= v 3.5.1
  • Download and install Python

VS2019 Notes

If seeing issues when trying to build (steps in ), some things to check/try:

  • Try running the build commands within the Developer Command Prompt for VS2019
  • Make sure MSBuild can find the correct VCTargetsPath
    • It is possible the VCTargetsPath environment variable needs to be set. The below example is based on a typical path, but the actual setting should match that of your current environment setup.
      • set VCTargetsPath=C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\MSBuild\Microsoft\VC\v160
  • Make sure CMake is picking up the correct generator
    • It is possible the CMAKE_GENERATOR environment variable needs to be set
      • set CMAKE_GENERATOR=Visual Studio 16 2019

VS2015 & VS2017 Notes

While it is possible to use VS2015 or VS2017 build tools, it is recommended to use the VS2019 path. Some things to note if using the VS2015 or VS2017:

  • Make sure CMake is picking up the correct generator
    • It is possible the CMAKE_GENERATOR environment variable needs to be set
      • VS2015 example: set CMAKE_GENERATOR=Visual Studio 14 2015
  • Make sure MSBuild can be found
    • It is possible an environment variable needs to be set
  • Make sure the correct Windows SDK is installed
  • Make sure MSBuild can find the correct VCTargetsPath
    • It is possible the VCTargetsPath environment variable needs to be set. The below example is based on a typical path, but the actual setting should match that of your current environment setup.
      • set VCTargetsPath=C:\Program Files (x86)\MSBuild\Microsoft.Cpp\v4.0\v140
  • MSBuild can run into issues with MAX_PATH limits when using python -m pip install couchbase. This isn't fixed until MSBuild 16.0 so it is recommended to move to VS2019 (comes with MSBuild 16.0).

Build the Python SDK

Clone this Python SDK repository:

git clone https://github.com/couchbase/couchbase-python-client.git

Move into the directory created after cloning the Python SDK repository:

cd couchbase-python-client

The following will compile the module locally:

python setup.py build_ext --inplace

If you have a libcouchbase install already (in, for example, /opt/local/libcouchbase), you may build using it by setting PYCBC_BUILD=DISTUTILS and some add extra directives, like so:

$ export PYCBC_BUILD=DISTUTILS
$ python setup.py build_ext --inplace \
    --library-dir /opt/local/libcouchbase/lib \
    --include-dir /opt/local/libcouchbase/include

You can also modify the environment CFLAGS and LDFLAGS variables.

WARNING: If you do not intend to install this module, ensure you set the PYTHONPATH environment variable to this directory before running any scripts depending on it. Failing to do so may result in your script running against an older version of this module (if installed), or throwing an exception stating that the couchbase module could not be found.

Install

pip install .

WARNING: If you are on Linux/Mac OS you may need to remove the build directory: rm -rf ./build before installing with pip: pip3 install ..

Using the SDK

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Connecting

See official documentation for further details on connecting.

# needed for any cluster connection
from couchbase.cluster import Cluster, ClusterOptions
from couchbase.auth import PasswordAuthenticator

# needed to support SQL++ (N1QL) query
from couchbase.cluster import QueryOptions

# get a reference to our cluster
cluster = Cluster('couchbase://localhost', ClusterOptions(
  PasswordAuthenticator('Administrator', 'password')))

NOTE: Authentication is handled differently depending on what version of Couchbase Server you are using. In Couchbase Server >= 5.0, Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) provides discrete username and passwords for an application that allow fine-grained control. The authenticator is always required.

Basic Operations

See official documentation for further details on Working with Data.

Building upon the example code in the Connecting section:

# get a reference to our bucket
cb = cluster.bucket('travel-sample')

# get a reference to the default collection
cb_coll = cb.default_collection()

# get a document
result = cb_coll.get('airline_10')
print(result.content_as[dict])

# using SQL++ (a.k.a N1QL)
call_sign = 'CBS'
sql_query = 'SELECT VALUE name FROM `travel-sample` WHERE type = "airline" AND callsign = $1'
row_iter = cluster.query(sql_query, QueryOptions(positional_parameters=[call_sign]))
for row in row_iter: 
    print(row)

Async Operations

The Python Couchbase SDK supports asynchronous I/O through the use of the asyncio (Python standard library) or the Twisted async framework.

NOTE: Currently, the gcouchbase API is not available in the 3.x version of the Python SDK.

Asyncio

To use asyncio, import acouchbase.cluster instead of couchbase.cluster. The acouchbase API offers an API similar to the couchbase API.

from acouchbase.cluster import Cluster, get_event_loop
from couchbase.cluster import ClusterOptions
from couchbase.auth import PasswordAuthenticator


async def write_and_read(key, value):
    cluster = Cluster('couchbase://localhost',
                      ClusterOptions(PasswordAuthenticator('Administrator', 'password')))
    cb = cluster.bucket('default')
    await cb.on_connect()
    cb_coll = cb.default_collection()
    await cb_coll.upsert(key, value)
    result = await cb_coll.get(key)
    cluster.disconnect()
    return result

loop = get_event_loop()
rv = loop.run_until_complete(write_and_read('foo', 'bar'))
print(rv.content_as[str])

Twisted

To use with Twisted, import txcouchbase.cluster instead of couchbase.cluster. The txcouchbase API offers an API similar to the couchbase API.

from twisted.internet import reactor, defer

from txcouchbase.cluster import TxCluster
from couchbase.cluster import ClusterOptions
from couchbase.auth import PasswordAuthenticator


def after_upsert(res, key, d):
    print('Set key.  Result CAS: ', res.cas)
    # trigger get_document callback
    d.callback(key)

def upsert_document(key, doc):
    d = defer.Deferred()
    res = cb.upsert(key, doc)
    res.addCallback(after_upsert, key, d)
    return d

def on_get(res, _type=str):
    print('Got res: \n', res.content_as[_type])
    reactor.stop()

def get_document(key):
    res = cb.get(key)
    res.addCallback(on_get)


# create a cluster object
cluster = TxCluster('couchbase://localhost',
                    ClusterOptions(PasswordAuthenticator('Administrator', 'password')))

# create a bucket object
bucket = cluster.bucket('default')
# create a collection object
cb = bucket.default_collection()

d = upsert_document('testDoc_1', {'id': 1, 'type': 'testDoc', 'info': 'fake document'})
d.addCallback(get_document)

reactor.run()

Building Documentation

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The documentation is using Sphinx and also needs the numpydoc Sphinx extension. In order for the documentation to build properly, the C extension must have been built, since there are embedded docstrings in there as well.

To build the documentation, go into the docs directory and run:

make html

The HTML output can be found in docs/build/html/.

Alternatively, you can also build the documentation (after building the module itself) from the top-level directory:

python setup.py build_sphinx

Once built, the docs will be in in build/sphinx/html.

Testing

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For running the tests, you need the standard unittest module, shipped with Python. Additionally, the testresources package is required.

To run them, use either py.test, unittest or trial.

The tests need a running Couchbase instance. For this, a tests.ini file must be present, containing various connection parameters. An example of this file may be found in tests.ini.sample. You may copy this file to tests.ini and modify the values as needed.

To run the tests:

nosetests

Contributing

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We welcome contributions from the community! Please see follow the steps outlined here to get started.

License

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The Couchbase Python SDK is licensed under the Apache License 2.0.

Support & Additional Resources

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If you found an issue, please file it in our JIRA. You can ask questions in our forums.

The official documentation can be consulted as well for general Couchbase concepts and offers a more didactic approach to using the SDK.

Appendix

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Mac OS pyenv Install

See pyenv install docs for further details.

Get the latest packages:

$ brew update

For TLS/SSL support:

$ brew install openssl

Install pyenv:

$ brew install pyenv

NOTE: It is possible that Xcode might need to be reinstalled. Try one of the following:

  • Use command xcode-select --install
  • Install the latest version of Xcode

For Zsh, run the following commands to update .zprofile and .zshrc. See pyenv install docs for further details on other shells.

$ echo 'eval "$(pyenv init --path)"' >> ~/.zprofile
$ echo 'eval "$(pyenv init -)"' >> ~/.zshrc

NOTE: You need to restart your login session for changes to take affect. On MacOS, restarting terminal windows should suffice.

Install Python version:

$ pyenv install 3.9.4

Set local shell to installed Python version:

$  pyenv local 3.9.4

To use virtualenvwrapper with pyenv, install pyenv-virtualenvwrapper:

$ brew install pyenv-virtualenvwrapper

To setup a virtualenvwrapper in your pyenv shell, run either pyenv virtualenvwrapper or pyenv virtualenvwrapper_lazy

NOTE: If issues with pyenv virtualenvwrapper, using python -m pip install virtualenvwrapper should accomplish the same goal.

Make a virtualenv:

$ mkvirtualenv python-3.9.4-test

Install the SDK:

$ python -m pip install couchbase

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