pypi i attrs


Python Classes Without Boilerplate

by python-attrs

22.1.0 (see all)License:MIT
pypi i attrs

.. image:: :alt: attrs logo :align: center

attrs is the Python package that will bring back the joy of writing classes by relieving you from the drudgery of implementing object protocols (aka dunder methods <>). Trusted by NASA <> for Mars missions since 2020!

Its main goal is to help you to write concise and correct software without slowing down your code.

.. teaser-end

For that, it gives you a class decorator and a way to declaratively define the attributes on that class:

.. -code-begin-

.. code-block:: pycon

from attrs import asdict, define, make_class, Factory

@define ... class SomeClass: ... a_number: int = 42 ... list_of_numbers: list[int] = Factory(list) ... ... def hard_math(self, another_number): ... return self.a_number + sum(self.list_of_numbers) * another_number

sc = SomeClass(1, [1, 2, 3]) sc SomeClass(a_number=1, list_of_numbers=[1, 2, 3])

sc.hard_math(3) 19 sc == SomeClass(1, [1, 2, 3]) True sc != SomeClass(2, [3, 2, 1]) True

asdict(sc) {'a_number': 1, 'list_of_numbers': [1, 2, 3]}

SomeClass() SomeClass(a_number=42, list_of_numbers=[])

C = make_class("C", ["a", "b"]) C("foo", "bar") C(a='foo', b='bar')

After declaring your attributes, attrs gives you:

  • a concise and explicit overview of the class's attributes,
  • a nice human-readable __repr__,
  • equality-checking methods,
  • an initializer,
  • and much more,

without writing dull boilerplate code again and again and without runtime performance penalties.

Hate type annotations!? No problem! Types are entirely optional with attrs. Simply assign attrs.field() to the attributes instead of annotating them with types.

This example uses attrs's modern APIs that have been introduced in version 20.1.0, and the attrs package import name that has been added in version 21.3.0. The classic APIs (@attr.s, attr.ib, plus their serious-business aliases) and the attr package import name will remain indefinitely.

Please check out On The Core API Names <>_ for a more in-depth explanation.

Data Classes

On the tin, attrs might remind you of dataclasses (and indeed, dataclasses are a descendant <> of attrs). In practice it does a lot more and is more flexible. For instance it allows you to define special handling of NumPy arrays for equality checks <>, or allows more ways to plug into the initialization process <>_.

For more details, please refer to our comparison page <>_.

.. -project-information-

Project Information

If you'd like to contribute to attrs you're most welcome and we've written a little guide <>_ to get you started!

attrs for Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of attrs and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source packages you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact packages you use. Learn more. <>_

Release Information

22.1.0 (2022-07-28)

Backwards-incompatible Changes ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

  • Python 2.7 is not supported anymore.

    Dealing with Python 2.7 tooling has become too difficult for a volunteer-run project.

    We have supported Python 2 more than 2 years after it was officially discontinued and feel that we have paid our dues. All version up to 21.4.0 from December 2021 remain fully functional, of course. #936 <>_

  • The deprecated cmp attribute of attrs.Attribute has been removed. This does not affect the cmp argument to attr.s that can be used as a shortcut to set eq and order at the same time. #939 <>_

Changes ^^^^^^^

  • Instantiation of frozen slotted classes is now faster. #898 <>_
  • If an eq key is defined, it is also used before hashing the attribute. #909 <>_
  • Added attrs.validators.min_len(). #916 <>_
  • attrs.validators.deep_iterable()'s member_validator argument now also accepts a list of validators and wraps them in an attrs.validators.and_(). #925 <>_
  • Added missing type stub re-imports for attrs.converters and attrs.filters. #931 <>_
  • Added missing stub for attr(s).cmp_using(). #949 <>_
  • attrs.validators._in()'s ValueError is not missing the attribute, expected options, and the value it got anymore. #951 <>_
  • Python 3.11 is now officially supported. #969 <>_

Full changelog <>_.


attrs is written and maintained by Hynek Schlawack <>_.

The development is kindly supported by Variomedia AG <>_.

A full list of contributors can be found in GitHub's overview <>_.

It’s the spiritual successor of characteristic <> and aspires to fix some of it clunkiness and unfortunate decisions. Both were inspired by Twisted’s FancyEqMixin <> but both are implemented using class decorators because subclassing is bad for you <>_, m’kay?

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