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@basic-streams/of-many
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@basic-streams/of-many

Basic event streams for JavaScript

by Roman Pominov

1.0.0 (see all)License:MITTypeScript:Built-In
npm i @basic-streams/of-many
Readme

Basic-streams — basic event streams for JavaScript

Project Status

It's stable an ready, feel free to use.

Introduction

This is the smallest and the simplest library for event streams (aka observables). In libraries like RxJS, a stream is an object, with a subscribe or a similar method on it. In these libraries subscribing to a stream looks like this:

const subscription = stream.subscribe(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

subscription.unsubscribe()

In basic-streams, a stream is the subscribe function:

const unsubscribe = stream(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

unsubscribe()

You don't even need a library to create a stream, you just define a function:

const streamOfMouseMoves = cb => {
  document.addEventListener("mousemove", cb)
  return () => {
    document.removeEventListener("mousemove", cb)
  }
}

This library allows you to apply operations like map, merge, chain (aka flatMap) and many other to these streams:

import map from "@basic-streams/map"

const streamOfCoordinates = map(event => {
  return {x: event.clientX, y: event.clientY}
}, streamOfMouseMoves)

streamOfCoordinates(coords => {
  console.log(coords)
})

// > { x: 731, y: 457 }
// > { x: 741, y: 415 }
// > { x: 748, y: 388 }
// > { x: 764, y: 342 }
// > { x: 770, y: 324 }
// > { x: 803, y: 238 }
// > { x: 809, y: 219 }
// > { x: 814, y: 202 }
// > ...

Protocol

type Stream<T> = (cb: (event: T) => void) => () => void

A valid stream must follow this rules:

  1. Stream is a function.
  2. It accepts one argument, the subscriber function (aka cb).
  3. It must return the unsubscribe function (aka disposer).
  4. cb must be called with one argument.
  5. disposer must always return undefined.
  6. After disposer was called, cb must not be called.

When you use a stream you must follow this rulles:

  1. Stream must be called with one argument, the cb.
  2. cb must be a function.
  3. cb must always return undefined.
  4. disposer must be called with no arguments.
  5. disposer must be called at most once.

We don't give any guarantees about the library behavior if these rules are violated. But you can use repair to create a well-behaved stream from a loose one, and protect if you want to use a stream more freely.

Use-cases

Reactive programming without big dependency

This library can be useful when you want to introduce just a bit of reactive programming to a project without bringing a big dependency. Sometimes bundle size is very important and every byte counts, so you may hesitate to add a library like RxJS as even though streams seem like a perfect solution to a problem. And here basic-streams come in, it's size almost non-existent, each function is a separate NPM module, and usually only several lines of code, so it should never be a problem to add a couple of basic-streams modules as dependencies.

Learning

Another use-case is learning. If you want to learn how reactive programming libraries work, code of basic-streams should be easier to understand compared to more serious projects. At the same time, it shares many concepts with them: you'll find many similar operators, and they work similarly under the hood. But because streams here is so basic, the code is very simple and there is very little of it.

Why not?

If limitations are not important to you why not use it? It's just another event streams implementation as good as any. The library is small, fast, well tested and documented, supports Flow and TypeScript, what else do you need?

Limitations and alternatives

No completion

A stream in basic-streams can't tell its subscriber that it's done producing events. This makes streams less expressive: if the process behind your stream has a notion of completion, you can't signal it to the subscriber using basic-streams. Also, we can't implement certain operators, like concat.

In some cases, this can be mitigated by sending a special event at the end, but because there is no standard way to do it, the library can't offer a good support for it. For example, you'll still get that special event in map and will have to handle it manually.

We could introduce a standard way to signal completion, but this would make the library more complex. Simplicity is the main trait of this project, and we have to pay in expressiveness for it.

No errors handling

Similarly to completion, there is no standard way to signal an error using a stream. This also makes library less expressive and some operators impossible to implement.

No way to unsubscribe from a synchronous stream

If a stream produces several events synchronously you can't unsubscribe after the first event, because you don't have access to the unsubscribe function yet. For example:

const stream = cb => {
  const items = [1, 2, 3]
  let unsubscribed = false

  // This code doesn't make sense because `unsubscribed`
  // can't be updated until we return the unsubscribe function
  for (let i = 0; i < items.length && !unsubscribed; i++) {
    cb(items[i])
  }

  return () => {
    unsubscribed = true
  }
}

const unsubscribe = stream(x => {
  console.log("first event", x)

  // ReferenceError: can't access lexical declaration `unsubscribe' before initialization
  unsubscribe()
})

You can always just ignore events, that is what the take operator does. But this is still a limitation because, for example, we can't implement an infinite synchronous stream, and then take a finite amount of events from it.

Although in most cases this shouldn't be a problem because streams are supposed to be asynchronous. If you want to work with synchronous collections you can use something like Lodash or Ramda.

Note that this issue may exist in the alternatives listed below as well, for example in Kefir.

Alternatives

If basic-streams don't meet your needs, try these more serious projects (in no particular order):

  1. Most
  2. Xstream
  3. RxJS
  4. Bacon
  5. Kefir

Installation

The library consists of many tiny NPM packages, every function is in its own package. Usually, the name of the package for a function X is @basic-streams/X, and the function is the default export. For example:

npm install @basic-streams/map --save
import map from "@basic-streams/map"

// or
const map = require("@basic-streams/map").default

Flow and TypeScript

The library comes with built-in Flow and TypeScript typings. You don't need to set up anything it should just work.

If you want to use the Stream<T> type in your code, you can import it from @basic-streams/stream:

// TypeScript

import {Stream} from "@basic-streams/stream"
import of from "@basic-streams/of"

const myStream: Stream<number> = of(1)
// @flow

import type {Stream} from "@basic-streams/stream"
import of from "@basic-streams/of"

const myStream: Stream<number> = of(1)

How to read time diagrams

In the examples below, you'll see time diagrams like this ___1___2. They should be pretty self-explanatory but there are couple notes to make:

  • The underscore _ usually represents one second.

  • An event takes space of one underscore, so for example, if an event happens after 5 seconds, we add only 4 underscores before it.

  • The exclamation mark ! means that the consumer unsubscribed from the stream. For example:

    const stream = ofMany([1, 2], 5000)
    
    const unsubscribe = stream(x => {
      unsubscribe()
    })
    
    // stream: ____1!
    

API reference

of

npm install @basic-streams/of --save

of<T>(value: T): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing the given value.

import of from "@basic-streams/of"

const stream = of(1)

stream(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1

empty

npm install @basic-streams/empty --save

empty(): Stream<never>

Creates a stream that will never produce events.

import empty from "@basic-streams/empty"

const stream = empty()

stream(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// no output

later

npm install @basic-streams/later --save

later(time: number): Stream<undefined>

Creates a stream that will produce undefined after the given time in milliseconds.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import later from "@basic-streams/later"

const stream = later(5000)

stream(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > undefined

//           undefined
// stream: ____.

of-many

npm install @basic-streams/of-many --save

ofMany<T>(
  values: Iterable<T>,
  interval?: number,
  scheduler?: (time: number) => Stream<void>
): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing given values.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"

ofMany([1, 2, 3])(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 3

If an interval is provided the events will be spread in time by that ammount of milliseconds, with the first one delayed. If the interval is 0 the events will be produced as soon as possible but still asynchronously.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"

ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 3

// ____1____2____3

Note that the iterable is consumed lazily, meaning that next() is called only when value is needed.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"

function* generator() {
  const startTime = Date.now()
  yield Date.now() - startTime
  yield Date.now() - startTime
  yield Date.now() - startTime
}
ofMany(generator(), 5000)(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 0
// > 5000
// > 10000

//     0   5000  10000
// ____.____.____.

You can provide a custom scheduler, a function that creates a stream producing an event after the given time. By default later is used as a scheduler.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import later from "@basic-streams/later"

function scheduler(time) {
  return later(time / 2)
}
ofMany([1, 2, 3], 6000, scheduler)(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 3

// __1__2__3

repair

npm install @basic-streams/repair --save

repair<T>(streamLoose: StreamLoose<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream from a loose stream that may not follow all the requirements of the protocol. The loose stream is allowed to:

  1. Return not a function. If the return value is not a function, it will be ignored.
  2. Pass more than one argument to the callback. The resulting stream will pass only the first argument to its callback.
  3. Disposer may return value of any type. The resulting stream's disposer will always return undefined.
  4. Call the callback after disposer was called. The resulting stream will ignore these calls.
import repair from "@basic-streams/repair"

const stream = repair(cb => {
  // extra arguments will be ignored
  cb(1, "extra")

  // we don't have to return a function
  return null
})

const unsubscribe = stream((...args) => {
  console.log(...args)
})

unsubscribe()

// > 1

The type StreamLoose defined as follows, and you can import it from @basic-streams/repair.

type StreamLoose<T> = (cb: (payload: T, ...rest: any[]) => void) => any

import {StreamLoose} from "@basic-streams/repair"

prepend

npm install @basic-streams/prepend --save

prepend<T, U>(x: T, stream: Stream<U>): Stream<T | U>

Creates a stream containing values from the given stream and x as the first value.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import prepend from "@basic-streams/prepend"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)

const result = prepend(0, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 0
// > 1
// > 2
// > 3

// stream: ____1____2____3
// result: 0___1____2____3

map

npm install @basic-streams/map --save

map<T, U>(fn: (x: T) => U, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<U>

Creates a stream containing fn(x) for each value x from the source stream.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import map from "@basic-streams/map"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)
const result = map(x => x * 2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 2
// > 4
// > 6

// stream: ____1____2____3
// result: ____2____4____6

filter

npm install @basic-streams/filter --save

filter<T>(predicate: (x: T) => boolean, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing values from the source stream that satisfy the given predicate.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import filter from "@basic-streams/filter"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)
const result = filter(x => x !== 2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 3

// stream: ____1____2____3
// result: ____1_________3

chain

npm install @basic-streams/chain --save

chain<T, U>(fn: (x: T) => Stream<U>, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<U>

Creates a stream containing all values from all streams created by applying the given function fn to each value in the given stream.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import chain from "@basic-streams/chain"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2], 10000)
const fn = x => ofMany([x, x, x], 7000)

const result = chain(fn, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 1
// > 2
// > 1
// > 2
// > 2

// stream: _________1_________2
// fn(1):            ______1______1______1
// fn(2):                      ______2______2______2
// result: ________________1______1__2___1__2______2

chain-latest

npm install @basic-streams/chain-latest --save

chainLatest<T, U>(fn: (x: T) => Stream<U>, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<U>

Same as chain, but when we create a new intermediate stream, we unsubscribe from the previous one.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import chainLatest from "@basic-streams/chain-latest"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2], 10000)
const fn = x => ofMany([x, x, x], 7000)

const result = chainLatest(fn, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 2
// > 2

// stream: _________1_________2
// fn(1):            ______1__!
// fn(2):                      ______2______2______2
// result: ________________1_________2______2______2

scan

npm install @basic-streams/scan --save

scan<N, A>(
  reducer: (accumulated: A, next: N) => A,
  seed: A,
  stream: Stream<N>,
): Stream<A>

Creates a stream containing reducer(a, x) for each value x from the source stream, and the latest value a produced from by the resulting stream. The resulting stream will also have given seed as the first event.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import scan from "@basic-streams/scan"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)

const result = scan((acc, next) => acc + next, 0, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 0
// > 1
// > 3
// > 6

// stream: ____1____2____3
// result: 0___1____3____6

ap

npm install @basic-streams/ap --save

ap<T, U>(streamf: Stream<(x: T) => U>, streamv: Stream<T>): Stream<U>

Creates a stream that will contain values created by applying the latest function from streamf to the latest value from streamv every time one of them updates.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import ap from "@basic-streams/ap"

const streamf = ofMany([x => x + 2, x => x - 2], 10000)
const streamv = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 8000)

const result = ap(streamf, streamv)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 3
// > 4
// > 0
// > 1

//               x => x + 2   x => x - 2
// streamf: _________._________.
// streamv: _______1_______2_______3
// result:  _________3_____4___0___1

map2

npm install @basic-streams/map2 --save

map2<A, B, C>(
  fn: (a: A, b: B) => C,
  streamA: Stream<A>,
  streamB: Stream<B>,
): Stream<C>

Creates a stream containing fn(a, b) where a and b are the latest values from streamA and streamB. The resulting stream updates when any of source stream update.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import map2 from "@basic-streams/map2"

const streamA = ofMany([2, 4], 10000)
const streamB = ofMany([1, 3], 8000)
const result = map2((a, b) => a + b, streamA, streamB)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 3
// > 5
// > 7

// streamA: _________2_________4
// streamB: _______1_______3
// result:  _________3_____5___7

map3

npm install @basic-streams/map3 --save

map3<A, B, C, D>(
  fn: (a: A, b: B, c: C) => D,
  streamA: Stream<A>,
  streamB: Stream<B>,
  streamC: Stream<C>,
): Stream<D>

Creates a stream containing fn(a, b, c) where a, b and c are the latest values from streamA, streamB and streamC. The resulting stream updates when any of source stream update.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import map3 from "@basic-streams/map3"

const streamA = ofMany([2, 4], 10000)
const streamB = ofMany([1, 3], 8000)
const streamC = ofMany([0], 3000)
const result = map3((a, b, c) => a + b + c, streamA, streamB, streamC)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 3
// > 5
// > 7

// streamA: _________2_________4
// streamB: _______1_______3
// streamC: __0
// result:  _________3_____5___7

combine-array

npm install @basic-streams/combine-array --save

combineArray<T>(streams: Array<Stream<T>>): Stream<Array<T>>

Creates a stream containing arrays of the latest values from given streams. The result stream updates when any of source stream updates.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import combineArray from "@basic-streams/combine-array"

const stream1 = ofMany([2, 4], 10000)
const stream2 = ofMany([1, 3], 8000)
const result = combineArray([stream1, stream2])

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > [2, 1]
// > [2, 3]
// > [4, 3]

// stream1: _________2_________4
// stream2: _______1_______3
// result:  _________._____.___.
//              [2, 1] [2, 3] [4, 3]

merge

npm install @basic-streams/merge --save

merge<T>(streams: Array<Stream<T>>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing values from all given streams.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import merge from "@basic-streams/merge"

const stream1 = ofMany([2, 4, 6], 10000)
const stream2 = ofMany([1, 3, 5], 8000)
const result = merge([stream1, stream2])

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 3
// > 4
// > 5
// > 6

// stream1: _________2_________4_________6
// stream2: _______1_______3_______5
// result:  _______1_2_____3___4___5_____6

skip

npm install @basic-streams/skip --save

skip<T>(n: number, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing values from the given stream except for the first n values.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import skip from "@basic-streams/skip"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)

const result = skip(2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 3

// stream: ____1____2____3
// result: ______________3

skip-while

npm install @basic-streams/skip-while --save

skipWhile<T>(predicate: (x: T) => boolean, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing each value from the given stream starting from the first value x for which predicate(x) returns false.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import skipWhile from "@basic-streams/skip-while"

const stream = ofMany([0, 1, 2, 1], 5000)

const result = skipWhile(x => x < 2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 2
// > 1

// stream: ____0____1____2____1
// result: ______________2____1

skip-duplicates

npm install @basic-streams/skip-duplicates --save

skipDuplicates<T>(
  comparator: (previous: T, next: T) => boolean,
  stream: Stream<T>,
): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing each value x from the source stream if comparator(p, x) returns false, where p is the latest value produced from the resulting stream. The first event from source stream isn't tested and always comes through.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import skipDuplicates from "@basic-streams/skip-duplicates"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 2, 3], 5000)

const result = skipDuplicates((a, b) => a === b, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2
// > 3

// stream: ____1____2____2____3
// result: ____1____2_________3

take

npm install @basic-streams/take --save

take<T>(n: number, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing only first n events from the source stream.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import take from "@basic-streams/take"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)
const result = take(2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2

// stream: ____1____2!
// result: ____1____2

take-until

npm install @basic-streams/take-until --save

takeUntil<T>(controller: Stream<any>, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing values from the given stream that are produced before the first event in the controller stream.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import later from "@basic-streams/later"
import takeUntil from "@basic-streams/take-until"

const stream = ofMany([1, 2, 3], 5000)
const controller = later(12000, 0)

const result = takeUntil(controller, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 1
// > 2

// stream:     ____1____2_!
// controller: ___________0!
// result:     ____1____2

take-while

npm install @basic-streams/take-while --save

takeWhile<T>(predicate: (x: T) => boolean, stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream containing each value from the given stream up until the first value x for which predicate(x) returns false.

import ofMany from "@basic-streams/of-many"
import takeWhile from "@basic-streams/take-while"

const stream = ofMany([0, 1, 2, 1], 5000)

const result = takeWhile(x => x < 2, stream)

result(x => {
  console.log(x)
})

// > 0
// > 1

// stream: ____0____1____2!
// result: ____0____1

multicast

npm install @basic-streams/multicast --save

multicast<T>(stream: Stream<T>): Stream<T>

Creates a stream with the same events as the given stream. The new stream will have at most one subscription at any given time to the original stream. This allows you to connect several consumers to a stream.

Each consumer only gets events produced after it was added.

import multicast from "@basic-streams/multicast"

let cb

const stream = _cb => {
  console.log("start")
  cb = _cb
  return () => {
    console.log("stop")
  }
}

const result = multicast(stream)

const unsubscribe1 = result(x => {
  console.log("consumer 1", x)
})

// > "start"

const unsubscribe2 = result(x => {
  console.log("consumer 2", x)
})

// No output this time, because we reuse the previous connection,
// and don't call `stream()` again.

cb(1)

// > "consumer 1" 1
// > "consumer 2" 1

unsubscribe1()

// No output. The connection is still active because
// one consumer is still subscribed.

unsubscribe2()

// > "stop"

protect

npm install @basic-streams/protect --save

protect<T>(stream: Stream<T>): StreamProtected<T>

Creates a protected stream that will contain same events as the given stream. When you use the protected stream, you don't have to follow the following rules from the protocol:

  • Stream must be called with one argument. You can pass extra arguments. They will be ignored.
  • cb must always return undefined. Your callback may return value of any type.
  • disposer must be called with no arguments. You can pass any arguments to the disposer. They will be ignored.
  • disposer must be called at most once. You can call disposer repeatedly. The second and following calls will have no effect.
import protect from "@basic-streams/protect"

const stream = (cb, ...extra) => {
  console.log("started", extra)
  console.log("callback returned", cb(1))
  return (...args) => {
    console.log("disposed", args)
  }
}

const result = protect(stream)

const disposer = result(x => {
  console.log("received event", x)
  return "should be ignored"
}, "should be ignored")

// > "started" []
// > "received event" 1
// > "callback returned" undefined

disposer()

// > "disposed" []

disposer()

// no output, the second call is ignored

The type StreamProtected defined as follows, and you can import it from @basic-streams/protect.

type StreamProtected<T> = (
  cb: (payload: T, ...rest: any[]) => void,
  ...rest: any[]
) => (...rest: any[]) => void

import {StreamProtected} from "@basic-streams/protect"

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