npm i @applitools/eyes-selenium


Applitools Eyes SDK (Unified Repo)

by applitools

4.64.1 (see all)License:SEE LICENSE IN LICENSETypeScript:Built-In
npm i @applitools/eyes-selenium

Applitools Eyes

Applitools Eyes SDK for Selenium WebDriver


Table of contents


Install Eyes-Selenium as a local dev dependency in your tested project:

npm i -D @applitools/eyes-selenium

Applitools API key

In order to authenticate via the Applitools server, you need to supply the Eyes-Selenium SDK with the API key you got from Applitools. Read more about how to obtain the API key here.

To do this, set the environment variable APPLITOOLS_API_KEY to the API key before running your tests. For example, on Linux/Mac:

export APPLITOOLS_API_KEY=<your_key>
npm test

And on Windows:

set APPLITOOLS_API_KEY=<your_key>
npx test

It's also possible to set the API key programmatically like so:

eyes.setApiKey('<your API key>')


After defining the API key, you will be able to use commands from Eyes-Selenium in your tests to take screenshots and use Applitools Eyes to manage them.

For example:

const {Eyes, Target} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

describe('My first visual test', function() {
  it('should check the Applitools website', async function() {

    const eyes = new Eyes();
    await eyes.open(browser, "applitools.com website", "My first Selenium test!")
    await eyes.check('home page', Target.window().fully())
    await eyes.close()

Getting started with the API

Eyes constructor

Creates an instance of Eyes, which then exposes methods to run and configure visual tests.

const eyes = new Eyes(runner)
  • runner - A runner instance which manages tests across multiple Eyes instances. The runner can be an instance of either a ClassicRunenr or a VisualGridRunner. For more information, see the Runners section below.


Creates an Applitools test. This will start a session with the Applitools server.

eyes.open(browser, appName, testName, viewportSize)

Visual tests and baselines

By using the open/check/close methods on Eyes, you are creating visual tests in Applitools Eyes. A visual test is a sequence of screenshots, compared with a baseline. The baseline is also a sequence of screenshots. The specific baseline to compare against is found by using the values for:

  1. Browser
  2. Operating system
  3. App name
  4. Test name
  5. Viewport size

The baseline is created automatically when running a test with specific values for these 5 parameters for the first time. For example, you run a test with Chrome on OS X and specify the app name, test name and viewport size via eyes.open(t, 'some app', 'some test', {width: 1200, height: 800}). The first time the test runs with these parameters, a baseline will be created. Any subsequent execution with the same values will compare screenshots against this baseline. The test will actually be created after running eyes.close, and the results of the test are returned as a TestResults object.

For more information, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/topics/general-concepts/how-eyes-compares-checkpoints.html


It's possible to aggregate tests that are run in different processes, or in different Eyes instances, under the same batch. This is done by providing the same batch ID to these tests.

For instructions, see the Organize tests in batches section below.

For more information, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/topics/working-with-test-batches/working-with-test-batches-in-overview.html


Generates a screenshot of the current page and add it to the Applitools Test.



Holds the checkpoint's configuration. This is defined using a fluent API, starting with Target.

Page screenshot
  • For taking a viewport screenshot, call Target.window().
  • For a full page screenshot, call Target.window().fully().
Region screenshot

To take an element screenshot, it's possible to specify either a locator or the element representation itself. For example:

// region by locator
const locator = by.css('.banner')

// region by element
const el = element(locator)

Passing a string is interpreted as a css selector:

// region by css selector

It's also possible to specify the absolute coordinates for the desired region:

// region by coordinates
  Target.region({left: 10, top: 20, width: 200, height: 80})

For all the above options, it's possible to specify .fully() in order to take the entire content of an element that can be scrolled.

Switching into frames

For taking screenshots of elements inside iframes, it's possible to specify the frame using the Target.frame fluent API. For example:

// element inside frame
  Target.frame('frame-1').region(by.css('.element-inside frame')

It's possible to take a screenshot of the entire frame:

// entire frame

Multiple frame calls can be made, thus creating a "frame chain". For example:

// element inside nested frames
Ignore Regions
// single region
  'viewport screenshot with ignore region',

// multiple regions
  'viewport screenshot with ignore region',
    .ignoreRegions('.dynamic-content-here', someElement, someCoordinates)

Possible input types are:

  • string (interpreted as css selector)
  • by locator
  • element
  • coordinates ({left, top, width, height})
Floating Regions
// viewport screenshot with floating region
    .floatingRegion('.floating-area', 10, 10, 10, 10) // up, down, left, right

// multiple regions
    .floatingRegions(10, '.floating-area', someElement, someCoordinates) // up, down, left, right all equal to 10

Possible input types are:

  • string (interpreted as css selector)
  • by locator
  • element
  • coordinates ({left, top, width, height})
Content/Strict/Layout Regions
// viewport screenshot with content region

// viewport screenshot with strict region

// viewport screenshot with layout region

// multiple regions
Target.window().contentRegions(region1, region2, region3)
Target.window().strictRegions(region1, region2, region3)
Target.window().layoutRegions(region1, region2, region3)

Possible input types are:

  • string (interpreted as css selector)
  • by locator
  • element
  • coordinates ({left, top, width, height})
Accessiblity Regions
const {AccessibilityRegionType} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

// viewport screenshot with accessibility region
  Target.window().accessibilityRegion('.some-element', AccessibilityRegionType.LargeText)

// multiple regions is done by chaining the same method
    .accessibilityRegion('.element-1', AccessibilityRegionType.LargeText)
    .accessibilityRegion('.element-2', AccessibilityRegionType.IgnoreContrast)
    .accessibilityRegion('.element-3', AccessibilityRegionType.BoldText)

Possible input types are:

  • string (interpreted as css selector)
  • by locator
  • element
  • coordinates ({left, top, width, height})
Scroll root element
// full page with custom scroll root element

Possible input types are:

  • string (interpreted as css selector)
  • by locator
  • element
Tag (withName)

Defines a name for the checkpoint in the Eyes Test Manager. The name may be any string and serves to identify the step to the user in the Test manager. You may change the tag value without impacting testing in any way since Eyes does not use the tag to identify the baseline step that corresponds to the checkpoint - Eyes matches steps based on their content and position in the sequences of images of the test. See How Eyes compares checkpoints and baseline images for details.

eyes.check(Target.window().withName('Main page'))
Variation group ID
eyes.check(Target.window().variationGroupId('Login button on the right'))

For more information, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/features/baseline-variations-groups.html

Lazy loading (lazyLoad)

It's possible to have the SDK scroll the entire page (or a specific length of the page) to make sure all lazyily loaded assets are on the page before performing a check.

// lazy loads with sensible defaults

// lazy loads with options specified
  maxAmountToScroll: 1000,   // total pixels of the page to be scrolled
  scrollLength: 250,  // amount of pixels to use for each scroll attempt
  waitingTime: 500,   // milliseconds to wait in-between each scroll attempt

Possible input types are:

  • nothing (enables sensible defaults)
  • options object ({maxAmountToScroll, waitingTime, scrollLength})

Other details:

  • If an option is omitted, the sensible default for that value will be used
  • The SDK will repeatedly scroll the page using the scrollLength until either the page cannot be scrolled further or the maxAmountToScroll has been reached (whichever happens first)
  • If more time is needed for additional content to load, then increase the waitingTime to a value higher than 500 milliseconds. If better performance is desired and additional content lazily loads faster than the default waitingTime, then reduce it to a value below 500 milliseconds
Density metrics (densityMetrics)

In order to set the density metrics for the screenshot, use the densityMetrics method. This method accepts a object value with the following properties:

  • xdpi - The exact physical pixels per inch of the screen in the X dimension.
  • ydpi - The exact physical pixels per inch of the screen in the Y dimension.
  • scaleRatio - The scale ratio.
// set density metrics
  xdpi: 100,
  ydpi: 100,
  scaleRatio: 1
Other checkSettings configuration
  • hideScrollbars
  • hideCaret
  • ignoreDisplacements
  • useDom
  • enablePatterns


Closes the applitools test and check that all screenshots are valid.

It is important to call this at the end of each test, symmetrically to open(or in afterEach(), see Best practice for using the SDK).

const testResults = await eyes.close(throwEx)
  • throwEx - (Boolean) throw an error if visual differences were found, or if the test failed for any other reason. The deault is true.

Return value: TestResults.


There are two types of runners: ClassicRunner and VisualGridRunner:

  1. ClassicRunner - used when the screenshot is taken by the SDK itself.
const {ClassicRunner} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
const runner = new ClassicRunner()
  1. VisualGridRunner - used when the screenshot is taken by the Ultrafast grid.
const {VisualGridRunner} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
const runner = new VisualGridRunner(concurrentSessions)
  • concurrentSessions - (Number) the number of visual tests that are allowed to run at the same time. Default: 1.

Purpose of runners

There are two purposes for using runners:

1. Use the Ultrafast grid

This is done simply by specifying the VisualGridRunner. Browsers are specified by using the Configuration API. For example:

const {Eyes, VisualGridRunner, BrowserType, DeviceName} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
const eyes = new Eyes(new VisualGridRunner)
const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()

configuration.addBrowser({width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.CHROME})
configuration.addBrowser({width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.FIREFOX})
configuration.addBrowser({width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.SAFARI})
configuration.addBrowser({width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.EDGE})
configuration.addBrowser({width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.IE_11})
configuration.addBrowser({deviceName: DeviceName.Galaxy_S9_Plus})


2. Manage tests across multiple Eyes instances

If you decide to create more than one instance of Eyes in your tests (for example, if you run new Eyes() in beforeEach test hooks), the runner provides a method called getAllTestResults for collecting test results across all eyes instances.

Consider the following:

const {Eyes, ClassicRunner, StitchMode} = require('applitools/eyes-selenium')
const runner = new VisualGridRunner(10)

async function runTest(url, ...browsers) {
  await driver.get(url)
  const eyes = new Eyes(runner)
  const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
  await eyes.open(driver, appName, testName, viewportSize)
  await eyes.check(undefined, Target.window().fully())

async function collectResults() {
  const testResultsSummary = await runner.getAllTestResults()
  for (const testResultContainer of testResultsSummary) {
    const testResults = testResultContainer.getTestResults()
    console.log(formatTestResults(testResults)) // see the Recipes section below for the implementation of this function

    {width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.CHROME},
    {width: 1200, height: 800, name: BrowserType.FIREFOX}
    {deviceName: DeviceName.Galaxy_S9_Plus},
    {deviceName: DeviceName.iPhone_X}

This snippet of code runs two visual tests in parallel on two websites, using a specific configuration for each url. To achieve this, multiple Eyes instances are used, but in order to wait for all test results, we call runner.getAllTestResults. We then iterate through the results and print out a formatted summary.

Visual locators

Information about what are visual locators and how to use them can be found in the documentation page here.

The API to locate a visual locator in Eyes-Selenium has the following TypeScript signature:

// Note: This is a formal TypeScript definition.
// The reason we use the generic type TLocator here is that is shows how the return value of eyes.locate is an object
// with the same keys as the array of locatorNames in the input to eyes.locate.
// We explain this in more detail in the example below.

interface Eyes {
  locate<TLocator extends string>(settings: VisualLocatorSettings<TLocator>): Promise<Record<TLocator, Array<Region>>>

interface VisualLocatorSettings<TLocator extends string> {
  locatorNames: Array<TLocator>;
  firstOnly: boolean;

interface Region {
  x: number;
  y: number;
  width: number;
  height: number;

Here is an example for using this API:

// first need to call eyes.open
await eyes.open(driver, 'Test app', 'Test visual locators')

// example for using eyes.locate
const regionsMap = await eyes.locate({
  locatorNames: ['locator_a', 'locator_b', 'locator_c'],

// now get the coordinates of one of the locators
const regionsForLocator_A = regionsMap['locator_a']

// if region is found, perform press at the middle
if (regionsForLocator_A && regionsForLocator_A.length > 0) {
  const region = regionsForLocator_A[0]
  const clickLocation = {
    x: region.left + region.width / 2,
    y: region.top + region.height / 2,
  await driver.actions({ bridge: true }).move(clickLocation).click().perform()

Recipes for common tasks

Configure Server URL

By default, Eyes-Selenium communicates with Applitools' public Eyes cloud server, located at https://eyesapi.applitools.com.

If you have a dedicated cloud or an on-premise server, configure a different Eyes server URL as follows:


Configure Proxy

If your company's network requires requests to go through the corporate proxy, you may configure it as follows:


// provide username and password:
// OR
  url: 'https://yourproxy.com',
  username: 'user',
  password: 'pass'

// use tunneling in case of HTTP over HTTPS proxy:
  url: 'http://yourproxy.com',
  isHttpOnly: true

Make every visual test correspond to a functional test

Every call to eyes.open and eyes.close defines a test in Applitools Eyes, and all the calls to eyes.check between them are called "steps". In order to get a test structure in Applitools that corresponds to the test structure in your functional test, it's best to open/close tests in every test call.

For example, when running with Mocha as a test runner:

describe('My first visual test', function() {
  beforeEach(async () => {
    await eyes.open(browser, "applitools.com website", "My first Selenium test!")
  afterEach(async () => {
    await eyes.close()
  it('...', async function() {
    // ...

Organize tests in batches

It's possible to manage how visual tests are aggregated into batches. Here are two methods for clustering tests into a single batch:

Method 1: environment variable

Run all the processes that execute Selenium with the same value for APPLITOOLS_BATCH_ID. For example, run tests with the same randomly generated UUID:

#! Unix based machines:
APPLITOOLS_BATCH_ID=`uuidgen` npm test

# Powershell on Windows:
set APPLITOOLS_BATCH_ID = powershell -Command "[guid]::NewGuid().ToString()"

It's also possible to control the batch name that shows up in Test Manager. For example:

export APPLITOOLS_BATCH_ID=`uuidgen`
export APPLITOOLS_BATCH_NAME="Login tests"
npm test

Method 2: eyes.setBatch

Provide all Eyes instances with the same value for batch ID. For example:

  name: 'My batch'

Stitch mode

The default stitch mode is Scroll. In order to change it:

const {Eyes, StitchMode} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

const eyes = new Eyes()

// to go back to scroll:

Background information

Eyes-Selenium allows you to control if the checkpoint image should include only the viewport - i.e. what you see in the browser window when you first load a page, or if it should also include the full page - i.e. what you would see if you manually scrolled down, or across, a page that is larger than the viewport.

When Eyes-Selenium takes a full page screenshot, it does so by taking multiple screenshots of the viewport at different locations of the page (via the Selenium browser driver), and then "stitching" them together. The output is one clear, potentially very large, screenshot of what can be revealed on the page when it is scrolled.

There are two methods for creating the stitched screenshot, and they are both related to the way the page is moved relative to the viewport. Here they are:

1. Stitch mode: Scroll

Using this method, the page is scrolled, just as a user would scroll. Eyes-Selenium takes the viewport screenshot, then scrolls the page to calculated locations. The issue with this method is that the page might respond to scroll events, and change the way it appears visually between the screenshots.

2. Stitch mode: CSS

Using this method, the page is moved around by changing the CSS property transform on the HTML element with different values for translate(x,y). This method is not sensitive to scroll events, and is usually the recommended method for stitching.

Stitch overlap

The stitch overlap is the length of the intersecting area between two screenshots that are stitched together. It's like placing two printed pictures one on top of the other with some overlapping area between them.

This is useful in cases of fixed elements, like a footer, that show up in each of the sub-screenshots. Using a stitch overlap bigger than the size of the footer would make it disappear from every image, and only show up at the bottom of the full page screenshot.

The default stitch overlap is 50 pixels. To change it:


Match level

The match level determines the way by which Eyes compares the checkpoint image with the baseline image.

The default match level is Strict. To change it:

// Option 1: For the rest of the execution
const {MatchLevel} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

// Option 2: For a single checkpoint

For more information, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/common/cmn-eyes-match-levels.html

Ignore displacements

By using ignore displacements you can hide diffs that arise from content whose position on the page has changed, and focus on mismatches caused by actual changes in the content.

The default is false. To change it:

// For the rest of the execution

// For a single checkpoint

For more information, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/topics/test-manager/viewers/tm-diff-displacement.html

Test properties

It's possible to provide additional information about each test in custom fields, which can then show up in Test Manager in their own column.

This is done by calling setProperties on the configuration, and providing it with an array of properties with the structure {name, value}. For example:

const {Eyes} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

const eyes = new Eyes()

const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
configuration.setProperties([{name: 'my custom property', value: 'some value'}])

The test properties could also be specified per batch by calling setProperties on the batch info, and providing it with an array of properties with the structure {name, value}. For example:

const {Eyes, BatchInfo} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')

const eyes = new Eyes()

const batch = new BatchInfo()
batch.setProperties([{name: 'my custom batch property', value: 'some value'}])

const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()

Test results

The results of the test can be consumed as the return value from eyes.close. Here's an example for creating a formatted output string out of the TestResults object:

function formatTestResults(testResults) {
  return `
Test name                 : ${testResults.getName()}
Test status               : ${testResults.getStatus()}
URL to results            : ${testResults.getUrl()}
Total number of steps     : ${testResults.getSteps()}
Number of matching steps  : ${testResults.getMatches()}
Number of visual diffs    : ${testResults.getMismatches()}
Number of missing steps   : ${testResults.getMissing()}
Display size              : ${testResults.getHostDisplaySize().toString()}
Steps                     :
  .map(step => {
    return `  ${step.getName()} - ${getStepStatus(step)}`

function getStepStatus(step) {
  if (step.getIsDifferent()) {
    return 'Diff'
  } else if (!step.getHasBaselineImage()) {
    return 'New'
  } else if (!step.getHasCurrentImage()) {
    return 'Missing'
  } else {
    return 'Passed'

For the full list of methods, visit our documentation page: https://applitools.com/docs/api/eyes-sdk/index-gen/class-testresults-selenium4-javascript.html


To enable logging to the console, use the ConsoleLogHandler class:

import {Eyes, ConsoleLogHandler} from '@applitools/eyes-selenium'

const eyes = new Eyes()
eyes.setLogHandler(new ConsoleLogHandler())

// To enable verbose logging:
eyes.setLogHandler(new ConsoleLogHandler(true))

To write logs to file, use the FileLogHandler class. It's possible to configure the file path, verbosity, and whether to append to file.

The API is as follows:

new FileLogHandler(isVerbose, filepath, append)

Default values are:

  • isVerbose: false
  • filepath: 'eyes.log', meaning a file with this name will be created in the current working directory.
  • append: true, meaning that every test will append to the file instead of recreating it.

For example:

const {Eyes, FileLogHandler} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
const path = require('path')

const eyes = new Eyes()

// append non-verbose logs to logs/eyes.log (relative to current working directory)
eyes.setLogHandler(new FileLogHandler(false, path.resolve('logs', 'eyes.log')))

// write verbose logs to a new file at logs/eyes-{timestamp}.log (relative to current working directory)
eyes.setLogHandler(new FileLogHandler(true, path.resolve('logs', `eyes-${Date.now()}.log`), false))

Configuring browsers for the Ultrafast grid

When it comes to multiple browsers and mobile devices, the Ultrafast grid shines. It's now possible to run one functional test, and in the background have multiple screenshots rendered for different browsers, viewport sizes, and mobile devices.

The API methods are:

  • configuration.addBrowser(browser) for adding a single browser configuration.
  • configuration.addBrowsers(browser1, browser2, ...) for adding single or multiple browser configurations.

Here are examples for how to execute visual tests on different browsers and platforms:

Desktop browsers

const {BrowserType} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
// ...
const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
  {name: BrowserType.EDGE_CHROMIUM, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.EDGE_LEGACY, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.FIREFOX, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.CHROME, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.IE_11, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.IE_10, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.SAFARI, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.CHROME_ONE_VERSION_BACK, width: 768, height: 1024},
  {name: BrowserType.CHROME_TWO_VERSIONS_BACK, width: 768, height: 1024},
  // ...

Chrome device emulation

Predefined device:

const {ScreenOrientation, DeviceName} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
// ...
const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
    chromeEmulationInfo: {
      deviceName: DeviceName.iPhone_6_7_8,
    chromeEmulationInfo: {
      deviceName: DeviceName.Galaxy_S9_Plus,
      screenOrientation: ScreenOrientation.LANDSCAPE,

Custom device:

const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
  chromeEmulationInfo: {
    width: 800,
    height: 600,
    deviceScaleFactor: 3,

iOS device

const {IosDeviceName, ScreenOrientation, IosVersion} = require('@applitools/eyes-selenium')
// ...
const configuration = eyes.getConfiguration()
  iosDeviceInfo: {
    deviceName: IosDeviceName.iPhone_11,
    screenOrientation: ScreenOrientation.LANDSCAPE, // optional, default: ScreenOrientation.PORTRAIT
    iosVersion: IosVersion.LATEST // optional, default: undefined (i.e. the default is determined by the Ultrafast grid)

The list of devices is available at https://github.com/applitools/eyes.sdk.javascript1/blob/master/packages/eyes-api/src/enums/IosDeviceName.ts

Possible values for iosVersion are:

  • IosVersion.LATEST - the latest iOS version that's supported by the UFG
  • IosVersion.LATEST_ONE_VERSION_BACK' - one version prior to the latest version
  • undefined - the UFG's default
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